"REBEL WITHOUT CAUSE" Original JAMES DEAN Vintge MOVIE FILM POSTER Hebrew ISRAEL For Sale
This item has been shown 1199 times.
"REBEL WITHOUT CAUSE" Original JAMES DEAN Vintge MOVIE FILM POSTER Hebrew ISRAEL:
DESCRIPTION :Here for sale is an EXCEPTIONALY RARE and ORIGINAL vintage Hebrew-Israeli SMALL POSTER
for the ISRAEL projection ofthelegendary classicfilm -
movie " REBEL WITHOUT A CAUSE " which was directed in 1955 by NICHOLAS RAY , Starring , Among others , the legendary JAMES DEAN and also NATALIE WOOD and SAL MINEO . The Hebrew poster was created ESPECIALLY for the Israeli projection of the film .Please note : This is Made in Israel
authentic THEATRE POSTER , Which was published by the Israeli
distributors of "CINEMA GALOR" in GIV'ATAIM ISRAEL for the Israeli projection of the film . The distributors gave the film a brand new HEBREW NAME - " The REBEL of YOUTH". you can be certain that this surviving copy
is ONE OF ITS KIND. Size 7" x 12" . The poster is invery good condition. Clean and
fresh. folding mark which will definitely disappear under a framed glass. ( Pls look at scan for accurate AS IS images
). Poster will be sent in a special
protective rigid sealed package.
PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal.
SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registeredairmail is $19. Poster will be sent in a special protective rigid sealed package. Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated Int'l duration around 14 days.
Rebel Without a Cause is a 1955 American (Warner Color) drama film about emotionally confused suburban, middle-class teenagers filmed in CinemaScope. The film stars James Dean, Sal Mineo and Natalie Wood. Directed by Nicholas Ray, it offered both social commentary and an alternative to previous films depicting delinquents in urban slum environments. Over the years, the film has achieved landmark status for the acting of cultural icon James Dean, fresh from his Oscar nominated role in East of Eden and who died before the film's release, in his most celebrated role. This was the only film during Dean's lifetime in which he received top billing. In 1990, Rebel Without a Cause was added to Library of Congress's National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant". The film was a groundbreaking attempt to portray the moral decay of American youth, critique parental style, and explore the differences and conflicts between generations. The title was adopted from psychiatrist Robert M. Lindner's 1944 book, Rebel Without a Cause: The Hypnoanalysis of a Criminal Psychopath. The film itself, however, does not reference Lindner's book in any way. Warner Bros. released the film on October 27, 1955. Contents 1 Plot2 Cast3 Production4 Reception5 Awards and accolades6 Cultural influence7 In popular culture 7.1 Television and film7.2 Music8 See also9 References 9.1 Notes9.2 Bibliography10 External links Plot Jim Stark is in police custody. Behind the opening credits, the film opens on a suburban Los Angeles street with teenager Jim Stark (Dean) drunkenly lying down on a sidewalk. He is arrested and taken to the juvenile division of the police station for "plain drunkenness". At the station he meets John "Plato" Crawford (Mineo ), who was brought in for shooting a litter of puppies with his mother's gun, and Judy (Wood), who was brought in for curfew violation (she was wearing a bright red dress with matching lipstick and was mistaken for being a streetwalker). The three each separately reveal their innermost frustrations to officers; all three of them suffer from problems at home: Jim feels betrayed and anguished by his constantly bickering parents, Frank (Jim Backus) and Carol (Ann Doran), but even more so by Frank's milquetoast attitude and failure to stand up to Carol and her mother, who lives with them. His frustrations are made manifest to officer Ray Fremick (Edward Platt) when Jim is released to their custody. Judy is convinced that her father (William Hopper) has callously withdrawn his affections from her because she's no longer a little girl, so she dresses up in racy clothes to get attention, which only causes her father to call her a "dirty tramp". Plato comes from a broken family. His father abandoned them when he was a toddler, and his mother is often away from home, leaving Plato in the care of her housekeeper. Jim sets out for his first day at Dawson High School and again meets Judy (who lives nearby) waiting on the corner and offers her a ride. Seemingly unimpressed by Jim at first, she declines and sarcastically says, "You know, I bet you're a real yo-yo," and then is picked up by her "friends", a gang of delinquents led by "Buzz" Gunderson (Corey Allen). Arriving at school, Jim immediately gets in hot water for unknowingly stepping on the school insignia. While shunned by most of the student body, Jim befriends Plato, who comes to idolize him as a father figure. That afternoon, Jim's class goes on a field trip to the Griffith Observatory, where they see a dramatic presentation of the bleak future of the Earth as the Sun goes through its red giant phase and post red-giant phase. As he walks out, Buzz and his gang slash one of Jim's tires and then begin taunting him by clucking and calling him "chicken", which is sure to set him off. When Jim asks Judy, revealed to be the "property" of Buzz, why she hangs around with them, Buzz pushes Jim away from her, then whips out a switchblade and challenges Jim to a knife fight. Having no knife, Jim refuses, so Buzz orders one of his gang to lend Jim his knife, but even then Jim still refuses. When Buzz again calls Jim chicken he goes off, and the two begin fighting, each one getting minor jabs on the other until Jim knocks Buzz' knife away and subdues him. Buzz wants another shot at Jim, which he accepts but not with knives. Buzz suggests stealing a couple of cars to have a "Chickie Run " at Millertown Bluff, a high seaside cliff. Jim agrees to meet them that evening before the observatory security guard runs the gang off. After they leave, Jim asks Plato what a Chickie Run is. At home, before leaving for the chickie run, Jim ambiguously asks Frank for advice about defending one's honor in a risky, dangerous situation. But Frank, dressed in a frilly apron and doing housework while Carol is sick in bed, instead gives Jim a long-winded speech about avoiding confrontation of any kind. Jim changes his clothes and drives to Millertown Bluff. Buzz shows him the two stolen cars they'll be racing, and then go to the edge of the cliff alone and share a cigarette, where Buzz confides in Jim that he likes him. When Jim asks Buzz why they're doing the run, Buzz replies "You gotta do something, now don't you?". Meanwhile, Judy asks Plato about Jim; though they barely know one another, Plato calls Jim his best friend. When Judy asks what Jim is like Plato merely replies "You have to get to know him," but adds that people Jim likes most get to call him "Jamie". As they prepare to race, Buzz explains the rules: the two are to race toward the edge of the cliff, and whoever jumps out of their car first is declared the "chicken". As the two cars speed toward the cliff, Jim tumbles out of his car, but Buzz' jacket sleeve gets caught on his door handle, preventing him from jumping out before both cars plummet to the rocky shores below. The rest of the gang flee leaving Judy stranded, but Jim, with Plato in tow, gives Judy a ride home, giving her back the purse mirror she left at the police station. Still with Plato along, Jim drives home. Plato then asks Jim if he would like to go with him up to an old abandoned mansion near the Observatory and stay there for the night, but Jim declines and sends him home, but not before Plato writes down Jim's address in his pocket notebook. Jim confronts his father while his mother watches. Jim tells of his involvement in the crash to Frank and Carol, who saw a news report about it on TV, but when Jim considers turning himself in, they warn him not to volunteer himself to the police. When Carol declares they're moving again, Jim asserts that he won't let her use him as an excuse to keep running away. Jim then begs Frank to stand up with him against her, but he doesn't. Jim angrily jumps and strangles Frank until he is pulled away by Carol. He storms off to the police station and is accosted by Buzz' fellow gang members Crunch (Frank Mazzola), Goon (Dennis Hopper) and Moose (Jack Grinnage) who were just released from custody. Jim ignores them and goes in looking for Fremick, but the desk sergeant rudely tells him that Fremick will be out all night. Before leaving, Jim tries to call Judy at her home, but the call is intercepted by her father who abruptly hangs up. Jim drives back home and finds Judy waiting at the same spot where they met that morning (she greets him with "Hello, Jamie"). When Jim reveals he was attracted to her from the moment he saw her (and even gently kisses the side of her forehead), Judy apologizes for the way she treated Jim that morning, blaming peer pressure, and the two begin to fall for one another. Agreeing that they will never go back to their respective homes, Jim suggests they go to the mansion Plato told him about saying, "You can trust me, Judy." Meanwhile, Plato is just arriving home on his motor scooter when he is grabbed by Crunch, Goon and Moose. Convinced that Jim ratted them out to the police, and looking to avenge Buzz' death, they demand to know where they can find Jim, but Plato refuses to talk. They grab Plato's pocket notebook as he gets to the front door and run off. Plato runs upstairs to his bedroom and, after throwing away a child support check from his father, grabs his mother's gun and runs off to find and warn Jim. At Jim's house Frank and Carol hear knocking at the front door. Frank answers to find a live chicken hanging over their door, and Buzz' friends asking about Jim, but Frank hurriedly shuts the door. After they take off, Plato shows up for the same reason, but when Frank asks Plato about Jim, Plato quickly apologizes and hurries off to the mansion where he finds Jim and Judy. The three new friends act out a fantasy as a family, and Plato tells them about when the "head shrink" got him to open up about hearing his parents fight when he was a baby, and how his mother later decided the money being spent on his therapy was better spent going off alone to Hawaii. Wishing they could stay there, but unable to ignore his situation, Plato decides he "might as well be dead anyway" and lies down to doze. Judy hums the Brahms' Lullaby to him before she and Jim go exploring the rest of the mansion. Crunch, Goon and Moose, now armed with chains, find their way to the mansion and wake up Plato. Frightened and distraught, Plato fights them off until he finds his gun and shoots Moose, and then mistakenly fires at Jim when he comes back. Jim tries to restrain Plato, but he runs from the mansion, shooting at police who have just arrived. Plato runs to the Observatory and barricades himself inside as more police converge including Fremick who, with Frank and Carol, was out looking for Jim. Jim and Judy follow Plato into the observatory, and Jim persuades Plato to trade the gun for his red jacket; Jim silently removes the ammunition before giving the gun back. Jim then convinces Plato to come outside after asking Fremick to turn the police lights off. As they start to come out the police notice Plato still has the gun and turn their lights back on, which incites Plato to break away and charge the police. When he is shot down, Jim screams, "I got the bullets!! Look!!" Seeing Jim's jacket, Frank believes at first that Jim had been shot. He runs to comfort the openly grieving Jim, and promises to try and be a stronger father, one that Jim can depend on. Now reconciled to his parents, Jim introduces them to Judy saying "She's my friend". As dawn encroaches, and as everyone leaves in their respective cars, a lone figure in a business suit with briefcase walks toward the Observatory, completely unaware of what just transpired. Cast James Dean as Jim StarkNatalie Wood as JudySal Mineo as John "Plato" CrawfordJim Backus as Frank StarkAnn Doran as Carol StarkCorey Allen as Buzz GundersonWilliam Hopper as Judy's fatherRochelle Hudson as Judy's motherEdward Platt as Ray FremickFrank Mazzola as CrunchDennis Hopper as GoonJack Grinnage as MooseVirginia Brissac as Grandma StarkMarietta Canty as the Crawford family's maidIan Wolfe as Astronomy ProfessorBeverly Long as HelenNick Adams as ChickSteffi Sidney as MilJack Simmons as CookieJohn Righetti as The Big Rig Production Warner Brothers had bought the rights to Lindner's book, intending to use the title for a film. Attempts to create a film version in the late 1940s eventually ended without a film or even a full script being produced. When Marlon Brando did a five-minute screen test for the studio in 1947, he was given fragments of one of the 1940s partial scripts. However, Brando was not auditioning for Rebel Without a Cause and there was no offer of any part made by the studio. The film, as it later appeared, was the result of a totally new script written in the 1950s that had nothing to do with the Brando test. The screen test is included on a 2006 special edition DVD of the 1951 film A Streetcar Named Desire. According to a Natalie Wood biography, she almost did not get the role of Judy because Nicholas Ray thought that she did not seem fit for the role of the wild teen character. While on a night out with friends, she got into a car accident. Upon hearing this, Ray rushed to the hospital. While in delirium, Wood overheard the doctor murmuring and calling her a "goddamn juvenile delinquent"; she soon yelled to Ray, "Did you hear what he called me, Nick?! He called me a goddamn juvenile delinquent! Now do I get the part?!" Dawson High School, the school in the film, was actually Santa Monica High School, located in Santa Monica, California. Irving Shulman, who adapted Nicholas Ray's initial film story into the screenplay, had considered changing the name of James Dean's character to Herman Deville, according to Jurgen Muller's "Movies of the '50s". He had also originally written a number of scenes that were shot and later cut from the final version of the film. According to an AFI interview with Stewart Stern, with whom Shulman worked on the screenplay, one of the scenes was thought to be too emotionally provocative to be included in the final print of the film. It portrayed the character of Jim Stark inebriated to the point of belligerence screaming at a car in the parking lot, "It's a little jeep jeep! Little jeep, jeep!" The scene was considered unproductive to the story's progression by head editor William H. Ziegler and ultimately ended up on the cutting room floor. In 2006, members of the Lincoln Film Society petitioned to have the scene printed and archived for historical preservation. The film was in production from March 28 to May 25, 1955. When production began, Warner Bros. considered it a B-movie project, and Ray used black and white film stock. When Jack L. Warner realized James Dean was a rising star and a hot property, filming was switched to color stock and many scenes had to be reshot in color. The 1949 Mercury Coupe James Dean drove in the movie is part of the permanent collection at the National Automobile Museum in Reno, Nevada. Reception The film received accolades for its story and for the performance of James Dean and the young stars who appeared, among them teenagers Natalie Wood, Sal Mineo and Dennis Hopper, along with Nick Adams and Corey Allen. The film holds a 96% fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes. The film was banned in New Zealand in 1955 by Chief Censor Gordon Mirams, out of fears that it would incite 'teenage delinquency', only to be released on appeal the following year with scenes cut out. In Britain, the film was released with an X-rating with scenes cut. Awards and accolades Wins 1990 National Film Registry Nominations Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor—Sal MineoAcademy Award for Best Supporting Actress—Natalie WoodAcademy Award for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story—Nicholas RayBAFTA Award for Best FilmBAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor—James Dean American Film Institute recognition 1998 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies #592005 AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes "You're tearing me apart!"—Nominated Empire magazine recognition Ranked 477th on list of the 500 greatest movies of all time in 2008. Cultural influence This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2012) In popular culture Television and film In The Simpsons episode, "Take My Wife, Sleaze", a parody of Rebel Without a Cause became an inspiration for Homer Simpson to form his motorcycle gang, even though he watched it with his vintage 1955 Harley-Davidson motorcycle he won at a '50s nostalgia cafe earlier in this episode.In The Sopranos episode, "Big Girls Don't Cry", Christopher Moltisanti's acting instructor assigns Chris and several classmates—whom she terms "rebels without causes"—to enact the scene wherein Plato dies and Jim cries over his friend's body. The scene (which evoked in Christopher feelings about his alcoholic mother, Joanne Blundetto Moltisanti, and deceased father, Richard (Dickie) Moltisanti) touched Christopher so deeply that it inspired him to cry (and to later punch the student who played Jim's father in the scene) and his emotionally true acting impressed Christopher's teacher and classmates.In Terrence Malick's film Badlands (1973), various characters note that the lead character reminds them of James Dean. The lead characters in Badlands—Kit and Holly (Martin Sheen and Sissy Spacek)—mildly echo those of Jim Stark and Judy (Dean and Woods). A Mercury Eight also appears in the film.The movie Cool As Ice is supposed to be a remake of Rebel Without a Cause.In the show Futurama, the outfit of Philip J. Fry is based on Jim's outfit.In the SpongeBob SquarePants episode "Prehibernation Week", SpongeBob says, "They're tearing me apart." in reference to the games that he and Sandy had been playing. This is a reference to Jim's line, "You're tearing me apart," when Jim's parents are arguing at the police station and have different opinions about Jim.In the 1990 film Darkman, protagonist Peyton Westlake (who is the future Darkman, played by Liam Neeson) describes himself as a "rebel without a clue" while seeing a projection slide of his as a young rebel.In the Space Goofs episode Rebel Without a Brain came from a movie title of the same name.In the 1983 film Christine, the character of Arnold "Arnie" Cunningham is intended to gradually resemble James Dean's character throughout the film, particularly his hair and trademark red jacket. This may be due in part to the urban legend of Dean also owning a haunted car.The Looney Tunes Show episode "Rebel Without a Glove" came from the movie title. In this episode, Bugs Bunny loses his gloves, and has to substitute biker gloves for them, only to realize that with the change in his gloves, his personality changes and he becomes a rebel.In the Red Dwarf episode, "Kryten", Kryten lists Rebel Without a Cause as one of the movies Lister had him watch to break his programming, stop obeying orders, and rebel against Rimmer.In the movie Fantastic Mr Fox (2009), the line "You say one thing, she says another, and it all changes back again" is taken from the scene in Rebel Without a Cause where Jim Stark confronts his parents in the police station.Tommy Wiseau uttered the phrase you are tearing me apart in his drama film The Room, in reference and as an homage to James Dean's role. Originally, the line was "You are taking me apart", because of Tommy Wiseau's seemingly poor understanding of the English language and also because of his unwillingness to admit that he had taken the line from James Dean.'Rebel was also an influential film for Akira director Katsuhiro Otomo.In Seed Of Chucky Glen yells "You're tearing me apart!" at his fighting parents.Director Robert Rodriguez (Spy Kids, From Dusk till Dawn) entitled his 1996 memoir about breaking into the film industry "Rebel Without A Crew." Music In 1995 Nonesuch Records issued an album of music from both East of Eden and Rebel Without a Cause by the London Sinfonietta, conducted by John Adams.The German musician Prinz Pi's album Rebell ohne Grund (2011) is named after Rebel Without a Cause.Rap Group Public Enemy made a song called "Rebel Without a Pause".Bonnie Tyler in 1986 made a song called "Rebel Without a Clue".The Bellamy Brothers in 1988 made a song called "Rebels Without a Clue".Rap-rock artist Kid Rock named his 1998 album "Devil Without a Cause".The 1991 Paula Abdul video "Rush, Rush" features a street race and co-stars Keanu Reeves, drawing stylistic inspiration from Rebel Without A Cause, and as such, has a period theme. A 90-second dramatic prelude to the song rather mirrors the characters from the film.The phrase "Rebel without a clue" also occurs in the 1989 song "I'll Be You" by The Replacements, which inspired Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers to include it onto their 1991 song "Into the Great Wide Open".Track 5 on the Every Time I Die album, The Big Dirty, is named "Rebel Without Applause".Locnville made a song named "James Dean".Joni Mitchell included clips from Rebel Without a Cause in her concert film, Shadows and Light, recorded in 1979 and released in 1980.Shenandoah mentions Dean and Wood in the song "I Want to Be Loved Like That". The beginning of the song states: "Natalie Wood gave her heart to James Dean/ High school rebel and a teenage queen/ Standing together in an angry world/ One boy fighting for one girl."The 1971 hit single American Pie contains the lyrics "When the Jester sang for the King and Queen in a coat he borrowed from James Dean", widely believed to be a reference to the red jacket worn by Dean's character in the film, and an allusion to the windbreaker worn by Bob Dylan on the cover of his 1963 album "The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan".In the Marilyn Manson song "Mutilation Is The Most Sincere Form Of Flattery" from his 2007 album "Eat Me, Drink Me" is the line "Rebels Without Applause"In the song "Constipation" by Black Hippy, says "Rebel without a cause".The Bruce Springsteen song "Cadillac Ranch" mentions James Dean's 1949 Mercury coupe. James Byron Dean (February 8, 1931 – September 30, 1955) was an American actor. He is a cultural icon of teenage disillusionment and social estrangement, as expressed in the title of his most celebrated film, Rebel Without a Cause (1955), in which he starred as troubled teenager Jim Stark. The other two roles that defined his stardom were loner Cal Trask in East of Eden (1955) and surly ranch hand Jett Rink in Giant (1956). Dean's enduring fame and popularity rest on his performances in only these three films. Dean's premature death in a car crash cemented his legendary status. He became the first actor to receive a posthumous Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, and remains the only actor to have had two posthumous acting nominations. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him the 17th best male movie star of Golden Age Hollywood in AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars list. Contents 1 Early life2 Acting career 2.1 East of Eden2.2 Rebel Without a Cause2.3 Giant3 Personal life4 Death 4.1 Auto racing hobby4.2 Accident and aftermath5 Legacy and iconic status 5.1 In culture and media5.2 Debated sexual orientation6 Stage 6.1 Broadway6.2 Off-Broadway7 Filmography 7.1 Film7.2 Television7.3 Commercial8 Biographical films9 References10 Further reading11 External links Early life James Dean was born at the Seven Gables apartment house at the corner of 4th Street and McClure Street in Marion, Indiana, the son of Winton Dean (January 17, 1907 – February 21, 1995) and Mildred Marie Wilson (September 15, 1910 – July 14, 1940). His parents were of mostly English ancestry, with smaller amounts of Scottish, German, Irish and Welsh. Six years after his father had left farming to become a dental technician, Dean and his family moved to Santa Monica, California. He was enrolled at Brentwood Public School in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, but transferred soon afterward to the McKinley Elementary school. The family spent several years there, and by all accounts, young Dean was very close to his mother. According to Michael DeAngelis, she was "the only person capable of understanding him." In 1938, she was suddenly struck with acute stomach pains and began to lose weight quickly. She died of uterine cancer when Dean was nine years old. Unable to care for his son, Dean's father sent him to live with his sister Ortense and her husband, Marcus Winslow, on a farm in Fairmount, Indiana, where he was raised in a Quaker household. Winton served in World War II and later remarried. In his adolescence, Dean sought the counsel and friendship of a local Methodist pastor, the Rev. James DeWeerd. DeWeerd seemed to have had a formative influence upon Dean, especially upon his future interests in bullfighting, car racing, and theater. According to Billy J. Harbin, Dean had "an intimate relationship with his pastor, which began in his senior year of high school and endured for many years." Their alleged sexual relationship was earlier suggested in the 1994 book Boulevard of Broken Dreams: The Life, Times, and Legend of James Dean by Paul Alexander. In 2011, it was reported that he once confided in Elizabeth Taylor that he was sexually abused by a minister approximately two years after his mother's death. Other reports on Dean's life also suggest that he was either sexually abused by DeWeerd as a child or had a sexual relationship with him as a late teenager. His overall performance in school was exceptional and he was also considered to be a popular student and having played on the baseball and varsity basketball teams, studied drama, and competed in public speaking through the Indiana High School Forensic Association. After graduating from Fairmount High School in May 1949, Dean moved back to California with his dog, Max, to live with his father and stepmother. He enrolled in Santa Monica College (SMC) and majored in pre-law. He transferred to UCLA for one semester, and changed his major to drama, which resulted in estrangement from his father. He pledged the Sigma Nu fraternity but was never initiated. While at UCLA, Dean was picked from a group of 350 actors to portray Malcolm in Macbeth. At that time, he also began acting in James Whitmore's workshop. In January 1951, he dropped out of UCLA to pursue a full-time career as an actor. Acting career Dean's first television appearance was in a Pepsi Cola television commercial. He quit college to act full-time and was cast in his first speaking part, as John the Beloved Disciple in Hill Number One, an Easter television special dramatizing the resurrection of Jesus. Dean worked at the widely filmed Iverson Movie Ranch in Chatsworth, Calif during production of the program, for which a replica of the tomb of Jesus was built on location at the ranch. Dean in 1953 Dean subsequently obtained three walk-on roles in movies: as a soldier in Fixed Bayonets!, as a boxing cornerman in Sailor Beware, a Paramount comedy starring Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis, and as a youth in Has Anybody Seen My Gal? While struggling to get jobs in Hollywood, Dean also worked as a parking lot attendant at CBS Studios, during which time he met Rogers Brackett, a radio director for an advertising agency, who offered him professional help and guidance in his chosen career, as well as a place to stay. In October 1951, following the encouragement of actor James Whitmore's and his mentor Rogers Brackett's advice, Dean moved to New York City. There he worked as a stunt tester for the game show Beat the Clock, but was subsequently fired for allegedly performing the tasks too quickly. He also appeared in episodes of several CBS television series, The Web, Studio One, and Lux Video Theatre, before gaining admission to the legendary Actors Studio to study method acting under Lee Strasberg. Proud of this accomplishment, Dean referred to the Studio in a 1952 letter to his family as "The greatest school of the theater. It houses great people like Marlon Brando, Julie Harris, Arthur Kennedy, Mildred Dunnock. ... Very few get into it ... It is the best thing that can happen to an actor. I am one of the youngest to belong." There, he was classmates and close friends with Carroll Baker, with whom he would eventually star in Giant (1956). Dean's career picked up and he performed in further episodes of such early 1950s television shows as Kraft Television Theatre, Robert Montgomery Presents, The United States Steel Hour, Danger, and General Electric Theater. One early role, for the CBS series Omnibus in the episode "Glory in the Flower", saw Dean portraying the type of disaffected youth he would later immortalize in Rebel Without a Cause. (This summer 1953 program was also notable for featuring the song "Crazy Man, Crazy", one of the first dramatic TV programs to feature rock and roll.) Positive reviews for Dean's 1954 theatrical role as "Bachir", a pandering North African houseboy, in an adaptation of André Gide's book The Immoralist, led to calls from Hollywood. East of Eden Main article: East of Eden (film) Dean in East of Eden (1955) In 1953, director Elia Kazan was looking for a substantive actor to play the emotionally complex role of 'Cal Trask', for screenwriter Paul Osborn's adaptation of John Steinbeck's 1952 novel East of Eden. The lengthy novel deals with the story of the Trask and Hamilton families over the course of three generations, focusing especially on the lives of the latter two generations in Salinas Valley, California, from the mid-19th century through the 1910s. In contrast to the book, the film script focused on the last portion of the story, predominantly with the character of Cal. Though he initially seems more aloof and emotionally troubled than his twin brother Aron, Cal is soon seen to be more worldly, business savvy, and even sagacious than their pious and constantly disapproving father (played by Raymond Massey) who seeks to invent a vegetable refrigeration process. Cal is bothered by the mystery of their supposedly dead mother, and discovers she is still alive and a brothel-keeping 'madam'; the part was played by actress Jo Van Fleet. Before casting Cal, Elia Kazan said that he wanted "a Brando" for the role and Osborn suggested the relatively unknown young actor, James Dean. Dean met with Steinbeck who did not like the moody, complex young man personally, but thought him to be perfect for the part. Dean was cast in the role and on April 8, 1954, left New York City and headed for Los Angeles to begin shooting. Much of Dean's performance in the film is unscripted, including his dance in the bean field and his fetal-like posturing while riding on top of a train boxcar (after searching out his mother in nearby Monterey). The most famous improvisation of the film occurs when Cal's father rejects his gift of $5,000, money Cal earned by speculating in beans before the US became involved in World War I. Instead of running away from his father as the script called for, Dean instinctively turned to Massey and in a gesture of extreme emotion, lunged forward and grabbed him in a full embrace, crying. Kazan kept this and Massey's shocked reaction in the film. Dean's performance in the film foreshadowed his role as Jim Stark in Rebel Without A Cause. Both characters are angst-ridden protagonists and misunderstood outcasts, desperately craving approval from a father figure. For the 1956 Academy Awards, Dean received a posthumous nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role for his performance in East of Eden, the first official posthumous acting nomination in Academy Awards history. (Jeanne Eagels was unofficially nominated for Best Actress in 1929, when the rules for selection of the winner were different.) East of Eden was the only film starring Dean that he would see released in his lifetime. Rebel Without a Cause Main article: Rebel Without a Cause Dean quickly followed up his role in Eden with a starring role as Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause, a film that would prove to be hugely popular among teenagers. The film has been cited as an accurate representation of teenage angst. It co-starred teen actors Natalie Wood, Sal Mineo, and Dennis Hopper and was directed by Nicholas Ray. Giant Main article: Giant (1956 film) Giant, which was posthumously released in 1956, saw Dean play a supporting role to Elizabeth Taylor and Rock Hudson. This was due to his desire to avoid being typecast as a rebellious teenager like Cal Trask or Jim Stark. In the film, he plays Jett Rink, a Texan ranch hand who strikes oil and becomes wealthy. His role was notable in that, in order to portray an older version of his character in the film's later scenes, Dean dyed his hair gray and shaved some of it off to give himself a receding hairline. Giant would prove to be Dean's last film. At the end of the film, Dean was supposed to make a drunken speech at a banquet; this is nicknamed the 'Last Supper' because it was the last scene before his sudden death. Dean mumbled so much due to his desire to make the scene more realistic by actually being inebriated for the take that director George Stevens decided the scene had to be overdubbed by Nick Adams, who had a small role in the film, because Dean had died before the film was edited. Dean received his second posthumous Best Actor Academy Award nomination for his role in Giant at the 29th Academy Awards in 1957 for films released in 1956. Personal life Screenwriter William Bast was one of Dean's closest friends, a fact acknowledged by Dean's family. According to Bast, who was also Dean's first biographer, (1956), he was Dean's roommate at UCLA and later in New York, and knew Dean throughout the last five years of his life. Fifty years after Dean's death, he stated that their friendship had included some sexual intimacy. While at UCLA, Dean dated Beverly Wills, an actress with CBS, and Jeanette Lewis, a classmate. Bast and Dean often double-dated with them. Wills began dating Dean alone, later telling Bast, "Bill, there's something we have to tell you. It's Jimmy and me. I mean, we're in love.":71 They broke up after Dean "exploded" when another man asked her to dance while they were at a function: "Jimmy saw red. He grabbed the fellow by the collar and threatened to blacken both of his eyes," she said.:74 Dean had also remained in contact with his girlfriend in New York, Barbara Glenn, whom he dated for two years. Their love letters sold at sale in 2011 for $36,000. Early in Dean's career, after Dean signed his contract with Warner Brothers, the studio's public relations department began generating stories about Dean's liaisons with a variety of young actresses who were mostly drawn from the clientele of Dean's Hollywood agent, Dick Clayton. Studio press releases also grouped Dean together with two other actors, Rock Hudson and Tab Hunter, identifying each of the men as an 'eligible bachelor' who has not yet found the time to commit to a single woman: "They say their film rehearsals are in conflict with their marriage rehearsals." Dean's best-remembered relationship was with young Italian actress Pier Angeli, whom he met while Angeli was shooting The Silver Chalice on an adjoining Warner lot, and with whom he exchanged items of jewelry as love tokens. Angeli, during an interview fourteen years after their relationship ended, described their times together: We used to go together to the California coast and stay there secretly in a cottage on a beach far away from prying eyes. We'd spend much of our time on the beach, sitting there or fooling around, just like college kids. We would talk about ourselves and our problems, about the movies and acting, about life and life after death. We had a complete understanding of each other. We were like Romeo and Juliet, together and inseparable. Sometimes on the beach we loved each other so much we just wanted to walk together into the sea holding hands because we knew then that we would always be together.:196 In his autobiography, East of Eden, director Elia Kazan dismissed the notion that Dean could possibly have had any success with women, although he remembered hearing Dean and Angeli loudly making love in Dean's dressing room. Kazan has been quoted saying about Dean, "He always had uncertain relations with girlfriends." Dean in 1955 Those that believed Dean and Angeli were deeply in love claim a number of forces led them apart. Angeli's mother disapproved of Dean's casual dress and what were, for her at least, radical behavior traits: his T-shirt attire, late dates, fast cars, and the fact that he was not a Catholic. Her mother said that such behavior was not acceptable in Italy. In addition, Warner Bros., where he worked, tried to talk him out of marrying and he himself told Angeli that he didn't want to get married.:197 Richard Davalos, Dean's East of Eden co-star, claimed that Dean wanted to marry Angeli and was willing to allow their children to be brought up Catholic. After finishing his role for East of Eden, he took a brief trip to New York in October 1954.:197 While he was away, Angeli unexpectedly announced her engagement to Italian-American singer Vic Damone. The press was shocked and Dean expressed his irritation. Angeli married Damone the following month. Gossip columnists reported that Dean watched the wedding from across the road on his motorcycle, even gunning the engine during the ceremony, although Dean later denied doing anything so "dumb.":197 Some, like Bast and Paul Alexander, believe the relationship was a mere publicity stunt. Esme Chandlee, the publicist at Angeli's home studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer who had kept news of her love affair with Kirk Douglas under wraps, believed that Angeli had been more smitten with Kirk than Jimmy Dean. Pier Angeli talked only once about the relationship in her later life in an interview, giving vivid descriptions of romantic meetings at the beach. Dean biographer John Howlett said these read like wishful fantasies, as Bast claims them to be. Hyams, in his 1992 biography of Dean, claims that he visited Dean just as Angeli, then married to Damone, was leaving his home. Dean was crying and allegedly told Hyams she was pregnant, with Hyams concluding that Dean believed the child might be his. Angeli, who divorced Damone and then her second husband, the Italian film composer Armando Trovajoli, was said by friends in the last years of her life to claim that Dean was the love of her life. She died from an overdose of barbiturates in 1971, at the age of 39. In 1997, the television movie Race with Destiny was produced, a true-story account of the love affair between Dean and Pier Angeli. It was shot on location "where he lived and loved" until his death. Actress Liz Sheridan asserts that she and Dean had a short affair in New York in 1952. Speaking of the alleged affair in 1996, she said that it was "just kind of magical. It was the first love for both of us." Again Bast is skeptical as to whether this was a true love affair and says Dean and Sheridan did not spend much time together. Sheridan published her memoir, Dizzy & Jimmy: My Life with James Dean; A Love Story in 2000. Dean also dated Swiss actress Ursula Andress. "She was seen riding around Hollywood on the back of James's motorcycle," writes biographer Darwin Porter. She was also seen with Dean in his sports cars, and was with him on the day he bought the car that he died in. At the time, Andress was also dating Marlon Brando. Death Main article: Death of James Dean Auto racing hobby Dean and his Porsche Super Speedster 23F at Palm Springs Races March 1955 In 1954, Dean became interested in developing an auto racing career. He purchased various vehicles after filming for East of Eden had concluded, including a Triumph Tiger T110 and a Porsche 356. Just before filming began on Rebel Without a Cause, he competed in his first professional event at the Palm Springs Road Races, which was held in Palm Springs, California on March 26–27, 1955. Dean achieved first place in the novice class, and second place at the main event. His racing continued in Bakersfield a month later, where he finished first in his class and third overall. Dean hoped to compete in the Indianapolis 500, but his busy schedule made this vision impossible. Dean's final race occurred in Santa Barbara on Memorial Day, May 30, 1955. He was unable to finish the competition due to a blown piston. His brief career was put on hold when Warner Brothers barred him from all racing during the production of Giant. Dean had finished shooting his scenes and the movie was in post-production when he decided to race again. Accident and aftermath The location of Dean's death, renamed "James Dean Memorial Junction" Longing to return to the "liberating prospects" of motor racing, Dean was scheduled to compete at a racing event in Salinas, California on September 30, 1955. Accompanying the actor to the occasion was stunt coordinator Bill Hickman, Collier's photographer Sanford Roth, and Rolf Wütherich, the German mechanic from the Porsche factory who maintained Dean's Porsche 550 Spyder "Little Bastard" car. Wütherich, who had encouraged Dean to drive the car from Los Angeles to Salinas to break it in, accompanied Dean in the Porsche. At 3:30 p.m., both Dean and Hickman, who were driving behind the Porsche, were ticketed for speeding. As the group traveled to the event via U.S. Route 466, at approximately 5:15 p.m. a 1950 Ford Tudor made a hesitant attempt to turn away from an intersection, placing him at the center of the road. Dean, unable to stop in time, slammed into the driver's quadrant of the Ford Tudor, and zipped across the pavement onto the side of the highway. The driver, Donald Turnupseed, exited his damaged vehicle with minor injuries. Wütherich had catapulted from the severely mangled Porsche, while a trapped Dean sustained numerous fatal injuries, including a broken neck. The accident was witnessed by a number of passersby who stopped to help. A woman with nursing experience attended to Dean and detected a weak pulse, but "death appeared to have been instantaneous". Dean was pronounced dead on arrival shortly after he arrived by ambulance at the Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital at 6:20 p.m. Though initially slow to reach newspapers in the Eastern United States, details of Dean's death rapidly spread via radio and television. By October 2, his death had received significant coverage from domestic and foreign media outlets. Dean's funeral was held on October 8, 1955 at the Fairmount Friends Church in Fairmount, Indiana. The coffin remained closed to conceal his mutilated corpse. An estimated 600 mourners were in attendance, while another 2400 fans gathered outside of the building during the procession. An inquest into Dean's death occurred three days later at the Paso Robles City Hall, where a coroner's jury delivered a verdict that he was entirely at fault due to speeding, and that Turnupseed was innocent of any criminal act. However, according to an article in the Los Angeles Times of October 1, 2005, a former California Highway Patrol officer who had been called to the scene, Ron Nelson, said the "wreckage and the position of Dean's body indicated his speed at the time of the accident was more like 55 mph". Legacy and iconic status In culture and media This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2012) American teenagers of the mid-1950s, when James Dean's major films were made, identified with Dean and the roles he played, especially that of Jim Stark in Rebel Without A Cause. The film depicts the dilemma of a typical teenager of the time, who feels that no one, not even his peers, can understand him. Joe Hyams says that Dean was "one of the rare stars, like Rock Hudson and Montgomery Clift, whom both men and women find sexy". According to Marjorie Garber, this quality is "the undefinable extra something that makes a star." Dean's iconic appeal has been attributed to the public's need for someone to stand up for the disenfranchised young of the era, and to the air of androgyny that he projected onscreen. Dean's "loving tenderness towards the besotted Sal Mineo in Rebel Without a Cause continues to touch and excite gay audiences by its honesty. The Gay Times Readers' Awards cited him as the male gay icon of all time." His estate still earns about $5,000,000 per year, according to Forbes Magazine. Dean is mentioned or featured in various songs. The American band Skid Row mentioned him in their song "Forever": "While lightin' cigarettes, like James Dean." The chorus of David Essex's original "Rock On" includes the refrain "Jimmy Dean. James Dean." Dean is mentioned in Rob Zarro's song Infamous Route 66: "I'm seeing really cool things, pictures of Marilyn and James Dean." The Eagles song named after Dean explores his fast and dangerous lifestyle. John Mellencamp mentions James Dean in the lyrics of "Jack & Diane". Lana del Rey repeatedly stated that she was into "James Dean kind of guys" and devoted one of her most acclaimed songs "Blue Jeans" to a former boyfriend who reminded her of the actor. Phil Ochs has a song titled Jim Dean of Indiana. In Hunter Hayes's song Storyline, a line in the first verse says "we got a fast car, a James Dean spirit, and a Norma Jean heart". He is also mentioned by Madonna in her song 'Vogue': "Greta Garbo and Monroe, Dietrich and DiMaggio, Marlon Brando, Jimmy Dean -- on the cover of a magazine." In addition, James Dean is often noted within television shows, films, books and novels. In an episode of Degrassi: The Next Generation, the character Liberty likens the rebellious, antisocial Sean Cameron to James Dean. On the sitcom Happy Days, Fonzie has a picture of Dean in his closet next to his mirror. A picture of Dean also appears on Rizzo's wall in the film Grease. On the American version of the TV series Queer as Folk, the main character Brian Kinney mentions James Dean together with Kurt Cobain and Jimi Hendrix, saying, "They're all legends. They'll always be young, and they will always be beautiful". In the alternative history book Homeward Bound by Harry Turtledove, Dean is stated to have not died in a car crash and to have made several more films, including Rescuing Private Ranfall, based on Saving Private Ryan. Dean is referenced in Lady Gaga's 2009 song "Speechless", off her album The Fame Monster, in the first verse: "I can't believe how you looked at me with your James Dean glossy eyes". Beyoncé 's song "Rather Die Young" off her album 4 (Beyoncé album) James Dean is mentioned "You're my James Dean, you make me feel like I'm seventeen". In Taylor Swift's song "Style" on her album 1989, the first line of the chorus references Dean: "You got that James Dean daydream look in your eye." Adam Lambert mentions James Dean in his song "Ghost Town" when he sings: "I tried to believe in God and James Dean but Hollywood sold out" from his album The Original High. Sleeping with Sirens has a song "If I'm James Dean, You're Audrey Hepburn". In the Halsey (singer) song "New Americana" on her album Badlands (Halsey album) Dean is also referenced "Young James Dean, some say he looks just like his father". Sham 69 reference Jimmy Dean on the album track 'Lost on Highway 46' on their 1979 LP 'The Adventures of the Hersham Boys' The song contains the chorus line 'Yes I can hear you Jimmy Dean, But I'm alive, I'm not dead' The second verse contains the lyric 'frustrated moments on a Hollywood screen, wearing a mask - do you know what I mean?', perhaps a very thinly veiled reference to his debated sexual orientation? The song also includes a section with someone calling the emergency services from the crash site and their sudden realisation the driver is James Dean - "Oh my god, I think it's James Dean". On April 20, 2010, a long "lost" live episode of the General Electric Theater called "The Dark, Dark Hours" featuring James Dean in a performance with Ronald Reagan was uncovered by NBC writer Wayne Federman while working on a Ronald Reagan television retrospective. The episode, originally broadcast December 12, 1954, drew international attention and highlights were featured on numerous national media outlets including: CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, and Good Morning America. It was later revealed that some footage from the episode was first featured in the 2005 documentary, James Dean: Forever Young. Debated sexual orientation Today, Dean is often considered an icon because of his "experimental" take on life, which included his ambivalent sexuality. There have been several claims that Dean had sexual relationships with both men and women. When questioned about his sexual orientation, he is reported to have said, "No, I am not a homosexual. But I'm also not going to go through life with one hand tied behind my back." By the 21st century, Dean was considered by many to have been gay. In 2005, Germaine Greer wrote, "Looking back over half a century to the meteoric career of James Dean, the one thing that now seems obvious is that the boy was as queer as a coot." She based her opinion partly on the then-new revelations of William Bast, one of Dean's closest friends. Bast, Dean's first biographer with James Dean: A Biography (1956), subsequently published a revealing update of his first book, in which, after years of successfully dodging the question as to whether he and Dean were sexually involved, he finally stated that they experimented. In this second book, Surviving James Dean (2006), Bast describes the difficult circumstances of their involvement and also deals frankly with some of Dean's other reported gay relationships, notably the actor's friendship with Rogers Brackett, the influential producer of radio dramas who encouraged Dean in his career and provided him with useful professional contacts. Bast also documents knowledge Dean had of gay bars and customs. Robert Aldrich and Garry Wotherspoon include an entry on James Dean in their book on gay and lesbian history, while journalist Joe Hyams suggests that any gay activity Dean might have been involved in appears to have been strictly "for trade", as a means of advancing his career. Val Holley notes that, according to Hollywood biographer Lawrence J. Quirk, gay Hollywood columnist Mike Connolly "would put the make on the most prominent young actors, including Robert Francis, Guy Madison, Anthony Perkins, Nick Adams and James Dean." However, the "trade only" notion is debated by Bast and other Dean biographers. Aside from Bast's account of his own relationship with Dean, Dean's fellow biker and "Night Watch" member John Gilmore claims he and Dean "experimented" with gay acts on one occasion in New York, and it is difficult to see how Dean, then already in his twenties, would have viewed this as a "trade" means of advancing his career. James Bellah, the son of James Warner Bellah who was a friend of Dean's at UCLA said ""Dean was a user. I don't think he was homosexual. But if he could get something by performing an act...." Screenwriter Gavin Lambert, himself gay and part of the Hollywood gay circles of the 1950s and 1960s, described Dean as being gay. Rebel director Nicholas Ray is on record as saying that Dean was gay, while author John Howlett believes that Dean was "certainly bisexual". George Perry's biography reduces these reported aspects of Dean's sexuality to "experimentation". Stage Broadway See the Jaguar (1952)The Immoralist (1954) – based on the book by André Gide Off-Broadway The Metamorphosis (1952) – based on the short story by Franz KafkaThe Scarecrow (1954)Women of Trachis (1954) – translation by Ezra Pound Filmography Film Year Title Role Director Notes 1951 Fixed Bayonets! Doggie Samuel Fuller Uncredited 1952 Sailor Beware Boxing Trainer Hal Walker Uncredited 1952 Has Anybody Seen My Gal? Youth at Soda Fountain Douglas Sirk Uncredited 1953 Trouble Along the Way Extra Michael Curtiz Uncredited 1955 East of Eden Cal Trask Elia Kazan Golden Globe Special Achievement Award for Best Dramatic Actor Jussi Award for Best Foreign Actor Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor 1955 Rebel Without a Cause Jim Stark Nicholas Ray Nominated – BAFTA Award for Best Foreign Actor 1956 Giant Jett Rink George Stevens Nominated – Academy Award for Best Actor Television Year Title Role Notes 1951 Family Theater John Episode: "Hill Number One: A Story of Faith and Inspiration" 1951 The Bigelow Theatre Hank Episode: "T.K.O." 1951 The Stu Erwin Show Randy Episode: "Jackie Knows All" 1952 CBS Television Workshop G.I. Segment: "Into the Valley" 1952 Hallmark Hall of Fame Bradford Episode: "Forgotten Children" 1952 The Web Himself Episode: "Sleeping Dogs" 1952–1953 Kraft Television Theatre Various Characters 3 episodes 1952–1955 Lux Video Theatre Various Characters 2 episodes 1953 The Kate Smith Hour The Messenger Episode: "The Hound of Heaven" 1953 You Are There Robert Ford Episode: "The Capture of Jesse James" 1953 Treasury Men in Action Various Characters 2 episodes 1953 Tales of Tomorrow Ralph Episode: "The Evil Within" 1953 Westinghouse Studio One Various Characters 3 episodes 1953 The Big Story Rex Newman Episode: "Rex Newman, Reporter for the Globe and News" 1953 Omnibus Bronco Evans Episode: "Glory in the Flower" 1953 Campbell Summer Soundstage Various Characters 2 episodes 1953 Armstrong Circle Theatre Joey Frasier Episode: "The Bells of Cockaigne" 1953 Robert Montgomery Presents Paul Zalinka Episode: "Harvest" 1953–1954 Danger Various Characters 4 episodes 1954 The Philco Television Playhouse Rob Episode: "Run Like a Thief" 1954 General Electric Theater Various Characters 2 episodes 1955 The United States Steel Hour Fernand Lagarde Episode: "The Thief" 1955 Schlitz Playhouse Jeffrey Latham Episode: "The Unlighted Road" Commercial Year Company Role Notes 1950 Pepsi Cola Student Dean appears in 2 of the 3 scenes 1955 National Safety Council As himself Taped on 17 September 1955 Biographical films James Dean: Portrait of a Friend aka James Dean (1976) with Stephen McHattie as James DeanJames Dean: The First American Teenager (1976), a television biography that includes interviews with Sal Mineo, Natalie Wood and Nicholas Ray.Sense Memories (PBS American Masters television biography) (2005)Forever James Dean (1988), Warner Home Video (1995)James Dean (fictionalized TV biographical film) (2001) with James Franco as James DeanJames Dean – Kleiner Prinz, Little Bastard aka James Dean – Little Prince, Little Bastard, German television biography, includes interviews with William Bast, Marcus Winslow Jr, Robert Heller (2005)James Dean: The Final Day features interviews with William Bast, Liz Sheridan and Maila Nurmi. Dean's bisexuality is openly discussed. Episode of Naked Hollywood television miniseries produced by The Oxford Film Company in association the BBC, aired in the US on the A&E Network, 1991.James Dean: Race with Destiny (1997) directed by Mardi Rustam, starring Casper Van Dien as James Dean.Living Famously: James Dean, Australian television biography includes interviews with Martin Landau, Betsy Palmer, William Bast, and Bob Hinkle (2003, 2006).James Dean – Mit Vollgas durchs Leben, Austrian television biography includes interviews with Rolf Weutherich and William Bast (2005).James Dean – Outside the Lines (2002), episode of Biography, US television documentary includes interviews with Rod Steiger, William Bast, and Martin Landau (2002).Joshua Tree, 1951: a Portrait of James Dean (2012).Two Friendly Ghosts (2012)Life (2015). Directed by Anton Corbijn, starring Dane DeHaan as James Dean. 3103