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c.1800-1840 34 Autographs of Senators, American Revolution, War of 1812 Leaders For Sale

c.1800-1840 34 Autographs of Senators, American Revolution, War of 1812 Leaders


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c.1800-1840 34 Autographs of Senators, American Revolution, War of 1812 Leaders:
$53

Absolutely wonderful assemblage of autographs of 18th and early 19th century senators, American Revolution patriots, persons involved with the War of 1812, members of the House of Representatives, etc., Perfect for the Americana dealer or collector.
All names and bios before! Worth a look for sure!

ALL AMERICANA ITEMS OFFERED HERE FROM THE ESTATE OF SECRETARY OF STATE, CARL LOEFFLER [1947-1949]. WE HAVE PURCHASED OTHER ITEMS AS WELL FROM THE ESTATE THAT WILL BE OFFERED AT SOTHEBY’S LATER THIS YEAR. THESE ARE JUST A FEW LITTLE GEMS WE THOUGHT MIGHT BE OF INTEREST HERE.


Alexander Smyth (1765 – April 17, 1830) was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician from Virginia. Smyth served in the Virginia Senate, Virginia House of Delegates, United States House of Representatives and as a general during the War of 1812. Smyth County, Virginia, is named in his honor.

William Smith (September 20, 1751 – June 22, 1837) was a congressman, state senator and judge from South Carolina. Smith was born in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, the oldest son of Ralph Smith and Mercy Penquite Smith. He moved to what became Spartanburg District, South Carolina with his family in 1765, where he became a planter. He fought in the Revolutionary War and served as a county judge from 1785 to 1797. He served in the South Carolina Senate from the Spartanburg District from 1790 to 1796 and was later elected a Democratic-Republican to the fifth congress serving from 1797 to 1799. He was elected back to the South Carolina Senate serving from 1810 to 1818. He died in the Spartanburg District in 1837.

Samuel Smith (July 27, 1752 – April 22, 1839) was a United States Senator and Representative from Maryland, a mayor of Baltimore, Maryland, and a general in the Maryland militia. He was the brother of cabinet secretary Robert Smith.

Born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, Smith moved with his family to Baltimore, Maryland, in 1759. He attended a private academy, and engaged in mercantile pursuits until the American Revolutionary War, at which time he served as captain, major, and lieutenant colonel in the Continental Army. Prior to the war, as a young captain, he was sent to Annapolis to arrest Governor Eden and seize his papers.

On September 23 with Philadelphia on the verge of capture, Washington sent Smith, then a Lieutenant Colonel of the 4th Maryland Regiment with a detachment of Continentals into the fort on Mud Island on the Delaware River. Smith's force numbered 200 soldiers plus Major Robert Ballard of Virginia, Major Simeon Thayer of Rhode Island, and Captain Samuel Treat of the Continental Artillery. However, another account stated that Thayer did not reach Fort Mifflin until October 19. With the British army closing in on Philadelphia, the small force had to reach Fort Mifflin by a circuitous route. On the last leg of their journey, reinforcements for Mud Island had to be ferried across the Delaware from Red Bank, New Jersey under the protection of the Pennsylvania Navy river flotilla commanded by John Hazelwood. The fort was eventually overwhelmed by weeks of British bombardment and was abandoned. After the war, Smith engaged in the shipping business.

From 1790 to 1792, Smith was a member of the Maryland House of Delegates. At the time of the threatened war with France in 1794, he was appointed brigadier general of the Maryland militia and commanded Maryland’s quota during the Whiskey Rebellion. Smith served as a major general of Maryland militia during the War of 1812, and commanded the defenses of Baltimore during the Battle of Baltimore in September 1814. The American victory there can largely be attributed to Smith's preparation for the British invasion.

Smith entered into national politics when he was elected to the Third United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1793, until March 4, 1803. As a Congressman, Smith served as chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Commerce and Manufactures (Fifth through Seventh Congresses). As a principal negotiator between the young Federalist leader and Delaware representative, James Asheton Bayard II, and the presumptive President-Elect Jefferson, Smith secured the winning ballot in the United States House of Representatives for Jefferson during the 1800 United States presidential election. Smith entered into the Senate election in 1802, and was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate. He was re-elected in 1808 and served from March 4, 1803 until March 4, 1815. While senator, Smith served as President pro tempore of the Senate during the Ninth and Tenth Congresses.

Samuel Whittlesey Dana (February 13, 1760 – July 21, 1830) was an American lawyer and politician from Middletown, Connecticut. He represented Connecticut in both the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.

Stephen Van Rensselaer III (November 1, 1764 – January 26, 1839) was a New York landowner, businessman, militia officer, and politician.

A graduate of Harvard University, at age 21, Van Rensselaer took control of Rensselaerswyck, his family's manor. He developed the land by encouraging tenants to settle it, and granting them perpetual leases at moderate rates, which enabled the tenants to use more of their capital to make their farms and businesses productive.

Active in politics as a Federalist, Van Rensselaer served in the New York State Assembly and New York State Senate, and as Lieutenant Governor of New York. After the demise of the Federalist Party, Van Rensselaer was a John Quincy Adams supporter, and served in the United States House of Representatives for one partial term and three full ones.

Van Rensselaer was a supporter of higher education; he served on the board of trustees for several schools and colleges, and was the founder of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He was also a civic activist and philanthropist, and was a founder of Albany's public library and the city's Institute of History & Arts.

Long active in the militia, Van Rensselaer attained the rank of major general; he commanded troops on the New York-Canada border during the War of 1812, but resigned his commission after defeat at the Battle of Queenston Heights.

After Van Rensselaer's 1839 death, efforts by his sons to collect past due lease payments led to the Anti-Rent War, and the break up and sale of the manor. As the heir to and then owner of one of the largest estates in New York, Van Rensselaer's holdings made him the tenth richest American of all time, based on the ratio of his fortune to contemporary GDP.

George McIntosh Troup (September 8, 1780 – April 26, 1856) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. He served in the Georgia General Assembly, U.S. House of Representatives, and he U.S. Senate before becoming the 32nd Governor of Georgia for two terms and then returning to the U.S. Senate. A believer in expansionist Manifest Destiny policies and a supporter of native Indian removal, Troup was born to planters and supported slavery throughout his career. Later in his life, he was known as "the Hercules of states' rights."

Roger Griswold (May 21, 1762 – October 25, 1812) was a nineteenth-century lawyer, politician and judge from Connecticut. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives, judge of the Connecticut Supreme Court and the 22nd Governor of Connecticut, serving as a Federalist.

Pierre Van Cortlandt Jr. (August 29, 1762 – July 13, 1848) was a United States Representative from New York. A member of New York's Van Cortlandt family, he was the son of Pierre Van Cortlandt, an early New York political figure, and brother of Philip Van Cortlandt, who was also a U.S. Representative from New York.

Gulian Crommelin Verplanck (August 6, 1786 – March 18, 1870) was an American attorney, politician, and writer. He was elected to the New York State Assembly and Senate, and later to the United States House of Representatives from New York, where he served as Chairman of the influential House Ways and Means Committee.

He served in a number of appointed positions of major institutions in New York: governor of New York Hospital; regent of the University of the State of New York, where in 1858, he became its Vice Chancellor, serving until his death more than a decade later; and President of the Board of Commissioners of Immigration for more than two decades.

Verplanck published articles and poetry in the North American Review, and was counted among the "Knickerbocker group". As a young man, he was among the organizers of the American Academy of the Fine Arts in New York City, which opened in 1802. It was intended to promote the study of classical art and help establish the city as a center of art. With tastes changing, it closed in 1840.

Thomas Metcalfe (March 20, 1780 – August 18, 1855), also known as Thomas Metcalf or as "Stonehammer", was a U.S. Representative, Senator, and the tenth Governor of Kentucky. He was the first gubernatorial candidate in the state's history to be chosen by a nominating convention rather than a caucus. He was also the first governor of Kentucky who was not a member of the Democratic-Republican Party.

At age 16, Metcalfe was apprenticed to his older brother and became a stonemason. He helped construct the Green County courthouse, known as the oldest courthouse in Kentucky. Later, political opponents would mock his trade, giving him the nickname "Old Stone Hammer." His political career began with four terms in the Kentucky House of Representatives. His service was interrupted by the War of 1812, in which he commanded a company in the defense of Fort Meigs. At the age of thirty-eight, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He held his seat in the House for five terms, then resigned to run for governor. In an election decided by 709 votes, Metcalfe defeated William T. Barry in the gubernatorial election of 1828. Metcalfe's predecessor, Joseph Desha was so stunned by his party's loss that he threatened not to vacate the governor's mansion. Ultimately, however, he respected the will of the people, and allowed an orderly transition.

Metcalfe's primary concern as governor was the issue of internal improvements. Among his proposed projects were a road connecting Shelbyville to Louisville and a canal on the Falls of the Ohio. When President Andrew Jackson vetoed funds to construct a turnpike connecting Maysville and Lexington, Metcalfe built it anyway, paying for it entirely with state funds. Following his term as governor, he served in the state senate, and completed the unfinished term of John J. Crittenden in the U.S. Senate in 1848. After this, he retired to "Forest Retreat", his estate in Nicholas County, where he died of cholera in 1855. Metcalfe County, Kentucky was named in his honor.

Richard Henry Wilde (September 24, 1789 – September 10, 1847) was a United States Representative and lawyer from Georgia.

Wilde was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1789 to Richard Wilde and Mary Newitt, but came to America at age eight and moved to Augusta, Georgia, in 1802. His brother was Judge John W. Wilde, a judge of Augusta, Georgia. He was a businessman and studied law. After gaining admittance to the state bar in 1809, Wilde practiced law in Augusta. He served as the solicitor general of the superior court of Richmond County, Georgia, and was also the attorney general of Georgia from 1811 to 1813 as a result of holding the Richmond County position.

In 1814, Wilde was elected as a Democratic-Republican Representative to the 14th United States Congress and served one term from March 4, 1815 until March 3, 1817, as he lost his reelection campaign in 1816. Upon Thomas W. Cobb's resignation, Wilde successfully ran as a Crawford Republican to fill that seat in the 18th Congress and served only a month from February 7, 1825, to March 3, 1825. After several more unsuccessful Congressional campaigns in 1824 and 1826, Wilde ran again in 1827 as a Jacksonian to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John Forsyth and won election to fill that term. He was reelected to three additional terms (21st, 22nd and 23rd Congresses) in that seat and served from November 17, 1827, to March 3, 1835.

Noyes Barber (April 28, 1781 – January 3, 1844) was a United States Representative from Connecticut.

Barber was born in Groton,Connecticut son of John and Elizabeth (Denison) Barber. He attended the common schools and engaged in mercantile pursuits. He was a major of the Eighth Connecticut Regiment in the War of 1812 where he was detailed to defend the coast towns during the blockade by the British Fleet. He married Catherine Burdick in 1801 and they had two children, Adeliade Barber & Betsey Ann Barber Copp. Catherine died in 1813 and he married Mary Chester Smith in 1814 and they had two children, Mary Elizabeth Barber Whitman and John Starr Barber.

Harrison Gray Otis (October 8, 1765 – October 28, 1848), was a businessman, lawyer, and politician, becoming one of the most important leaders of the United States' first political party, the Federalists. He was a member of the Otis family.

One of the wealthiest men of Boston during his time, Otis was reportedly worth at least US$800,000 in 1846, which in 2019 would be equivalent to $27 million.

Ninian Edwards (March 17, 1775 – July 20, 1833) was a founding political figure of the state of Illinois. He served as the only governor of the Illinois Territory from 1809 to 1818, as one of the first two United States Senators from Illinois from 1818 to 1824, and as the third Governor of Illinois from 1826 to 1830. In a time and place where personal coalitions were more influential than parties, Edwards led one of the two main factions in frontier Illinois politics.

Born in Maryland, Edwards began his political career in Kentucky, where he served as a legislator and judge. He rose to the position of Chief Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1808, at the time Kentucky's highest court. In 1809, U.S. President James Madison appointed him to govern the newly created Illinois Territory. He held that post for three terms, overseeing the territory's transition first to democratic "second grade" government, and then to statehood in 1818. On its second day in session, the Illinois General Assembly elected Edwards to the U.S. Senate, where conflict with rivals damaged him politically.

Edwards won an unlikely 1826 election to become Governor of Illinois. Conflict with the legislature over state bank regulations marked Edwards' administration, as did the pursuit of Indian removal. As governor or territorial governor he twice sent Illinois militia against Native Americans, in the War of 1812 and the Winnebago War, and signed treaties for the cession of Native American land. Edwards returned to private life when his term ended in 1830 and died of cholera two years later.

Samuel Lathrop (May 1, 1772 – July 11, 1846) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

Samuel Lathrop was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts on May 1, 1772, the son of Reverend Joseph Lathrop, longtime pastor of the First Church of West Springfield. He pursued classical studies and graduated from Yale College in 1792.

He studied law., was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice in West Springfield. Lathrop served as West Springfield's clerk and treasurer from 1796 to 1798, and was town meeting moderator eight years. From 1817 to 1821 he served as Hampden County Attorney.

Lathrop was elected as a Federalist to the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Congresses, reelected as an Adams-Clay Federalist to the Eighteenth Congress, and reelected as an Adams candidate to the Nineteenth Congress (March 4, 1819 – March 3, 1827). He served as chairman of the Committee on Revisal and Unfinished Business (Seventeenth and Eighteenth Congresses). In 1824 Lathrop ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts, losing to Levi Lincoln, Jr.. Lathrop was the last Federalist nominee for Massachusetts governor.

After leaving Congress Lathrop resumed the practice of law and became a gentleman farmer. He served as member of the Massachusetts State Senate in 1829 and 1830 and served as President pro tempore. In 1831 and 1832 he ran unsuccessfully for governor as an Anti-Mason, losing both times to Lincoln. From 1829 to 1840 he was a trustee of Amherst College.

John Holmes (March 14, 1773 – July 7, 1843) was an American politician. He served as a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts and was one of the first two U.S. Senators from Maine. Holmes was noted for his involvement in the Treaty of Ghent.

Holmes was born in Kingston, Massachusetts, and attended public schools in Kingston. In 1796, he graduated from the College of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (the former name of Brown University) in Providence, Rhode Island. Holmes studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1799, opening a law practice in Alfred, Maine—then a district of Massachusetts. At this time, he was also engaged in literary pursuits.

Holmes, a Democratic-Republican, was elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1802, 1803, and 1812. He was elected to the Massachusetts State Senate in 1813 and 1814.

In 1816, Holmes was one of the commissioners under the Treaty of Ghent to divide the islands of Passamaquoddy Bay between the United States and Great Britain. He was also appointed by the legislature to organize state prisons and revise the Massachusetts criminal code.

Holmes was elected as a United States Representative from Massachusetts in 1816, serving from March 4, 1817, to his resignation on March 15, 1820. During the 16th Congress, Holmes served as chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of State. Holmes supported William H. Crawford, (a "Crawford Republican"), and John Quincy Adams. He was opposed to Andrew Jackson (an "Anti-Jackson").

Holmes supported the Missouri Compromise, and was praised by Thomas Jefferson for his pamphlet Mr. Holmes's Letter to the People of Maine. In the letter, Jefferson thanks Holmes for a copy of this pamphlet. This pamphlet defends Holmes's position on supporting the Missouri Compromise—the admission of Maine as a free state with the admission of Missouri as a slave state, which was an unpopular position in Maine. This letter is also notable for being the first written attestation of the phrase "to have the wolf by the ear".

Joseph Kent (January 14, 1779 – November 24, 1837), a Whig, was a United States Senator from Maryland, serving from 1833 until his death in 1837. He also served in the House of Representatives, serving the second district of Maryland from 1811 to 1815 and again from 1819 to 1826, and as the 19th Governor of Maryland from 1826 to 1829.

Nathaniel Potter Tallmadge(February 8, 1795 – November 2, 1864) was an American lawyer and politician. He was a U.S. Senator from New York and Governor of the Wisconsin Territory.

Robert Perkins Letcher (February 10, 1788 – January 24, 1861) was a politician and lawyer from the US state of Kentucky. He served as a U.S. Representative, Minister to Mexico, and the 15th Governor of Kentucky. He also served in the Kentucky General Assembly where he was Speaker of the House in 1837 and 1838. A strong supporter of the Whig Party, he was a friend of Henry Clay and John J. Crittenden.

Letcher's family came to Kentucky around 1800. Letcher attended the private academy of Joshua Fry, then studied law. He was briefly a judge advocate in John Allen's volunteer militia during the War of 1812. He began his political career in 1813, representing Garrard County in the Kentucky House of Representatives. In 1823, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served for more than a decade. During the 1824 presidential election, he acted as an intermediary between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. Adams' opponent, Andrew Jackson, charged that, through these negotiations, Clay agreed to support Adams for president in exchange for being named Secretary of State.

In 1840, Letcher was chosen as the Whig nominee for governor of Kentucky over William Owsley. In the general election, Letcher won by landslide over Judge Richard French. Letcher's fiscally conservative policies helped Kentucky recover from the financial Panic of 1837. By the end of his term, the state was experiencing budget surpluses and state banks had resumed specie payments. After Letcher left office, he was appointed Minister to Mexico by President Zachary Taylor. Following this, he made an attempt to return to the U.S. House, but was defeated by Democrat John C. Breckinridge. Letcher's defeat in Henry Clay's home district was a strong indication of the decline of Whig influence in Kentucky. Though he remained active in politics, Letcher never again sought public office. He died on January 24, 1861.

Jonathan Russell (February 27, 1771 – February 17, 1832) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat.

Born in Providence, Rhode Island on February 27, 1771, Russell graduated from Brown University (then Rhode Island College) in 1791. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, but did not practice. He engaged in mercantile pursuits for a number of years. In 1808 he was appointed Collector of the Port of Bristol.

He was appointed by President James Madison to the Diplomatic Service in France in 1811. He transferred to England, where he was Chargé d'Affaires when war was declared by the United States in 1812. He was Minister to Sweden and Norway from January 18, 1814 to October 16, 1818.

"Jonathan Russell and the Capture of the Guerriere," by Lawrence S. Kaplan in The William and Mary Quarterly,Third Series, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Apr., 1967), published by the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, discusses the circumstances of Russell's authorship of a patriotic poem about the famous sea battle found in Russell's private papers (now mainly at Brown University's Library). The article quotes the entirety of the poem, dates it to approximately 1812, and speculates that Russell was motivated to write this anti-British work by the humiliation he had suffered while at the Court of St. James.

Russell was one of the five commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Ghent with Great Britain in 1814, ending the War of 1812. He returned to the United States in 1818 and settled in Mendon, Massachusetts.

On April 29, 1818, when Jonathan Russell presented his credentials as American Minister Plenipotentiary to Sweden.

He became a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1820 and was elected to the Seventeenth Congress (March 4, 1821 – March 3, 1823). He was chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs (Seventeenth Congress).

In 1822, Russell authored a pamphlet accusing John Quincy Adams, one of Russell's former fellow-negotiators at Ghent in 1814, of having favored British interests in those treaty talks. Russell intended the pamphlet to further Henry Clay's presidential candidacy against Adams in the 1824 election. Adams' responsive pamphlets were so devastating in impugning Russell's veracity that they engendered the phrase "to Jonathan Russell" someone, meaning to refute an attacker's falsehoods so effectively that it destroys the attacker's reputation.

Joseph Hopkinson (November 12, 1770 – January 15, 1842) was a United States Representative from Pennsylvania and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Born on November 12, 1770, in Philadelphia, Province of Pennsylvania, British America, Hopkinson received an Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1786 from the University of Pennsylvania, an Artium Magister degree in 1789 from the same institution and read law in 1791, with William Rawle and James Wilson. He was admitted to the bar and entered private practice in Philadelphia and Easton, Pennsylvania from 1791 to 1814.

In 1795, Hopkinson defended the men charged with treason in their rebellion against a federal whiskey tax. In 1799, he successfully represented Dr. Benjamin Rush in a libel suit against journalist William Cobbett. He was counsel for Justice Samuel Chase in his impeachment trial before the United States Senate in 1804 and 1805.

Alexander Contee Hanson (February 27, 1786 – April 23, 1819) was an American lawyer, publisher, and statesman. He represented the third district of Maryland in the U.S. House, and the state of Maryland in the U.S. Senate.

Alexander Contee Hanson was born in Annapolis, Maryland, on February 27, 1786, the second son of Alexander Contee Hanson, Sr. (1749-1806) and Rebecca Howard (ca. 1760-1806). His older brother, Charles W. Hanson, later became a judge in Baltimore. His younger sister, Mary Jane Hanson (1791–1815), was married to Thomas Peabody Grosvenor (1778–1817), a U.S. Representative from New York. He attended local private schools and graduated from St. John's College in Annapolis in 1802.

He was the grandson of John Hanson (1721–1783), a delegate to the Continental Congress who signed the Articles of Confederation and served as the 9th President of the Continental Congress, and Jane Contee (1726–1812), herself the granddaughter of Thomas Brooke, Jr. (1660–1730). Through his paternal grandmother's brother, Thomas Contee (1729-1793), he was related to Benjamin Contee (1755–1815) and Thomas Contee Worthington (1782–1847), William Grafton Delaney Worthington (1785–1856), and Walter Brooke Cox Worthington (1795–1845). His cousin, Rebecca Thomas (1777-1814) was married to another cousin, Alexander Contee Magruder (c. 1779-1853).

He proceeded to study law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice in Annapolis. He served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1811 to 1815.

Hanson launched the Federal Republican and Commercial Gazette in Baltimore in 1808 and merged it with another publication the following year. The Federal Republican was known as one of the nation’s most extreme Federalist newspapers. On June 22, 1812, four days after the beginning of the War of 1812, a mob that was irritated by his articles denouncing the administration destroyed his office. On July 28, he reissued the paper from another building, where he was joined by a group of armed allies. When that building was besieged by a mob, Hanson and his group fired, killing two. On the morning of July 29, Hanson and his group surrendered to Mayor Edward Johnson, who had come to personally defuse the situation, and were escorted to jail. That evening, the mob stormed the jail, and Hanson was beaten and left for dead. James M. Lingan, a military officer who came to Hanson's defense, died as a result of the violence. Hanson also received help from Revolutionary War Hero and father of Robert E. Lee, Henry Lee III, who received grave injuries. Another man John Thompson recounts being tarred and feathered by the mob and stated that the rioters brought a field gun to besiege Hanson's house, although the arrival of the mayor and other city officials stopped it from being fired. Hanson moved the paper to Georgetown, D.C., where he published it unmolested. Hanson later moved to Elkridge, Maryland.

John Rhea (1753 – May 27, 1832) was an American soldier and politician of the early 19th century who represented Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives. Rhea County, Tennessee and Rheatown, a community and former city in Greene County, Tennessee is named for him.

Rhea was born in the parish of Langhorn, County Londonderry, (probably Taughoyne parish, Donegal) Ireland. His family immigrated to Pennsylvania when he was 16, settling in Philadelphia. His father, Rev. Joseph Rhea, a Presbyterian minister, moved the family to Piney Creek, Maryland in 1771. They moved again in 1778 to what is now eastern Tennessee (then in North Carolina). Rhea completed his preparatory studies in 1780, and entered Princeton College.

He served in the Patriot militia that defeated a loyalist force at the Battle of Kings Mountain in October 1780.

Rhea became clerk of the Sullivan County Court in the proposed State of Franklin, and subsequently in North Carolina, from 1785 to 1790. He was a member of the North Carolina House of Commons, and served as a delegate from Sullivan County to the Fayetteville Convention that ratified the Federal Constitution in 1789. He then studied law and was admitted to bar in 1789. In 1796, he was a delegate to the constitutional convention of Tennessee and also the attorney general of Greene County. At the same time he was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives for two years.

Rhea was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Eighth Congress and the five succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1803 until March 3, 1815. During the Tenth through the Thirteenth Congress, he was the chairman of the Committee on Post Office and Post Roads. He was a member of the Committee on Pensions and Revolutionary War Claims during the Fifteenth Congress through the Seventeenth Congress.

He was appointed United States commissioner to treat with the Choctaw Nation in 1816. Afterward, he again became a U.S. Representative, serving from March 4, 1817 until March 3, 1823 in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Congresses. He was actively connected with higher education in Tennessee, serving as one of the founders of Blount College, which later became the University of Tennessee. He retired from active pursuits and resided on Rhea plantation near Blountville, Sullivan County, Tennessee, where he died on May 27, 1832. He was interred in Blountville Cemetery.

Rhea County, Tennessee was named in his honor.

George Holcombe (March 1786 – January 4, 1828) was a United States Representative from New Jersey. Born in what was then Amwell Township (now in part of Lambertville in Hunterdon County, New Jersey) he completed preparatory studies and graduated from Princeton College in 1805. He attended the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia and later studied medicine in Trenton. Holcombe was granted a license by the Medical Society of New Jersey and practiced medicine in Allentown from 1808 to 1815.

Holcombe held several local offices and was a member of the New Jersey General Assembly in 1815 and 1816. He was elected as Democratic-Republican to the Seventeenth Congress, elected as a Jacksonian Democratic-Republican to the Eighteenth Congress, and reelected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, and held office from March 4, 1821, until his death in Allentown in 1828. Holcombe's remains were interred in the Congressional Cemetery.

Daniel Jenifer (April 15, 1791 – December 18, 1855) was an American lawyer and statesman from Charles County, Maryland. He was also the nephew of Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer. He graduated from Charlotte Hall Military Academy. He represented Maryland's 1st Congressional district in the U.S. Congress in 1831–1833 and the 7th district from 1835–1841. From 1841–1845 he served as U.S. Minister to the Austrian Empire.

His uncle, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, was a signer of the United States Constitution. His family home was known as Retreat and is located in Port Tobacco, Maryland.

Samuel Shepard Conner (ca. 1783 – December 17, 1820) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts.

Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, Conner attended Phillips Exeter Academy in 1794. He was graduated from Yale College in 1806. He studied law.

Conner married Elizabeth Denniston of Albany, New York. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Waterville, Maine (at that time a district of Massachusetts), in 1810. Conner served in the War of 1812. Conner was first a Major of the Twenty-first Infantry. In the beginning of 1813 Conner served as Aide-de-camp to General Henry Dearborn. He was one of the American officers who accepted the British surrender at the Battle of York. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the Thirteenth Infantry March 12, 1813. He resigned July 14, 1814. He resumed the practice of law in Waterville, Maine.

Conner was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the Fourteenth Congress (March 4, 1815 – March 3, 1817). He was appointed surveyor general of the Ohio land district in 1819. He died in Covington, Kentucky, December 17, 1820.

Nathan Sanford (November 5, 1777 – October 17, 1838) was an American politician.

Sanford was born on November 5, 1777 in Bridgehampton, New York. He was the son of Thomas Sanford and Phebe (née Baker) Sanford, a family of farmers and tradesmen.

He attended Yale University, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice in New York City.

In 1803, he was appointed as United States Attorney for the District of New York, and remained in office until 1815 when the district was split into the Northern and the Southern District of New York.

He was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1808-09 and 1811. In 1811, he was elected Speaker on January 29, but could not attend the session after February 10 because of ill health. The Assembly moved to elect a new Speaker and proceeded to the election of William Ross. He was a member of the New York State Senate (Southern D.) from 1812 to 1815, sitting in the 35th, 36th, 37th and 38th New York State Legislatures.

In 1815, he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1815, to March 3, 1821. He was Chairman of the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures (15th and 16th United States Congresses), and a member of the Committee on Naval Affairs (15th Congress) and the Committee on Finance (16th Congress). In 1821, he ran for re-election as a Clintonian, but was defeated by Bucktail Martin Van Buren.

He was a delegate to the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821, and was Chancellor of New York from 1823 to 1826. In 1824, he received 30 electoral votes for U.S. Vice President.

In 1826, he resigned the chancellorship after his nomination in caucus, and was elected again to the U.S. Senate. He took his seat on January 31, 1826, and served until March 3, 1831. He was Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Relations (19th United States Congress). Afterwards he resumed the practice of law in Flushing, New York.

Jeremiah Morrow (October 6, 1771 – March 22, 1852) was a Democratic-Republican Party politician from Ohio. He served as the ninth Governor of Ohio, and the last Democratic-Republican to do so.

Morrow was born near Gettysburg in the Province of Pennsylvania. He was of Scots-Irish descent, his Irish grandfather, also Jeremiah Morrow, had come to America from County Londonderry, and was descended from 17th century Scottish settlers. He moved to the Northwest Territory in 1795. He lived at the mouth of the Little Miami River for a short time before moving to what is now Warren County. As a member of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, he sought the services of a minister of his denomination soon after settling in the region, and he was one of the original elders of the Mill Creek congregation when it was organized shortly before 1800.

After serving in the Territorial House of Representatives and Territorial Senate, and as a Hamilton county delegate to the 1802 Constitutional Convention, he was elected to the first State Senate a year later and served six months before becoming Ohio's first member of the United States House of Representatives. Morrow won four additional full terms. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 1812 and served a single term from 1813 to 1819, and did not seek re-election. As such, he was the first U.S. Senator for Ohio to serve a full six-year term. Morrow was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. In 1820, he served as one of Ohio's Presidential electors for James Monroe. He won election to the governorship in 1822 and served for two two-year terms. He declined to serve a third term, instead returning to the Ohio House of Representatives and State Senate. Morrow was sent back to Washington again in 1841, and served two more years in the House, but refused to be renominated in 1842, correctly believing himself too old.

Ichabod Bartlett (July 24, 1786 – October 19, 1853) was an American politician and a United States Representative from New Hampshire.

Bartlett was born in Salisbury, New Hampshire on July 24, 1786. He received a classical education and graduated from Dartmouth College in Hanover in 1808. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1811, commencing practice in Durham.

Bartlett moved to Portsmouth in 1816 and continued the practice of law. He was the clerk of the New Hampshire Senate in 1817 and 1818, and served as the state solicitor for Rockingham County 1819-1821. In addition, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives 1819-1821 and served as speaker in 1821.

Elected as an Adams-Clay Republican to the Eighteenth Congress and as an Adams to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, Bartlett served as United States Representative from (March 4, 1823 – March 3, 1829). He declined the appointment as chief justice of the court of common pleas in 1825 and was again a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives 1830, 1838, 1851, and 1852. Failing in a offer for governorship of New Hampshire in 1832, he served as a member of the state constitutional convention in 1850.

George Tucker (August 20, 1775 – April 10, 1861) was an American attorney, politician, historian, author, and educator. His literary works include The Valley of Shenandoah (1824), the first fiction of colonial life in Virginia, and Voyage to the Moon (1827), which is among the nation's earliest science fictions. Tucker also published the first comprehensive biography of Thomas Jefferson, as well as his 1856 History of the United States.

Tucker was the son of the first mayor of Hamilton, Bermuda. He immigrated to Virginia at age 20, was educated at the College of William and Mary, and was admitted to the bar. His first marriage ended with the death of his childless wife Mary Farley in 1799; he remarried and had six children with wife Maria Carter, who died at age 38 in 1823. His third wife, of 30 years, was Louisa Thompson who died in 1858.

Aside from his law practice, Tucker wrote distinctive monologues for various publications. His topics ranged widely from the conceptual to the technical—from slavery, suffrage, and morality to intracoastal navigation, wages, and banking. He was elected in 1816 to the Virginia House of Delegates for one term, and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1819 to 1825. From his youth until early middle age, Tucker's lofty social lifestyle was often profligate, and occasionally scandalous. Nevertheless, upon completion of his congressional term, his eloquent publications led Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to extend to him an appointment to serve as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the newly founded University of Virginia; he accepted and held that post until 1845.

William Allen Trimble (April 4, 1786 – December 13, 1821) was a Democratic-Republican politician from Ohio. He served in the United States Senate.

Trimble was born in Woodford, Kentucky, the son of James and Jane (Allen) Trimble. He graduated from Transylvania College and was admitted to the bar in 1811. He briefly practiced law in Highland County, Ohio from 1811 to 1812.

In the subsequent years he served in a variety of capacities, mostly with the Ohio militia and the U.S. Army in campaigns against the Pottawatomie Indians. He was a major of the Ohio Volunteers in 1812 and major of the Twenty-sixth United States Infantry in 1813. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1814 and then to lieutenant colonel of the First United States Infantry in 1814. He was transferred to the Eighth United States Infantry in 1815 and served there until his resignation in 1819, following his election to the U.S. Senate for the term beginning in 1819.

Thomas Newton Jr. (November 21, 1768 – August 5, 1847) was an American politician. He was born in Norfolk, Virginia.

Newton was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1796 to 1799. He served as a Democratic-Republican in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1801, to March 9, 1830, losing his seat when George Loyall contested his election. He regained his seat at the next election and served a final term from March 4, 1831, to March 3, 1833. In the bitterly contested 1824 presidential election, Newton was the only Virginia representative to support the Adams-Clay coalition.

John Williams Walker (August 12, 1783 – April 23, 1823) was an American politician, who served as the Democratic-Republican United States senator from the state of Alabama, the first senator elected by that state.

Walker was born August 12, 1783 in Amelia County, Virginia, of Scots-Irish heritage, the son of Rev. Jeremiah Walker and Mary Jane Graves. He was educated at the prestigious Willington Academy of Dr. Moses Waddel near Petersburg, Georgia, and received degrees in 1806 and 1809 from Princeton University. He studied law, and was admitted to the bar at Petersburg.

In 1808, Walker married Matilda Pope, daughter of LeRoy Pope and Judith Sale, and in 1810, he followed his father-in-law to settle in the new town of Huntsville, Mississippi Territory (now Alabama), and there began the practice of law.

Upon the formation of the Alabama Territory in 1817, Walker served as a representative from Madison County to the first territorial legislature in 1818. In the second session, he served as speaker. In 1819, he was president of the convention that framed Alabama's first constitution, which enabled Alabama's admission to the United States.

On October 28, 1819, Walker was elected by an almost unanimous vote of the state legislature as the first United States senator from Alabama. He served from December 14, 1819 until his resignation on December 12, 1822 on account of his failing health. He died in Huntsville on April 23, 1823, and is buried in Maple Hill Cemetery. Walker County, Alabama, established December 20, 1824, is named in his honor.

Joseph Vance (March 21, 1786 – August 24, 1852) was a Whig politician from Ohio. He was the 13th Governor of Ohio and the first Whig to hold the position.

Vance was born in Catfish (now Washington), Pennsylvania. He moved with his father, Joseph C. Vance, a Revolutionary War veteran, to Vanceburg, Kentucky, in 1788, and then to Urbana, Ohio, in 1805.

A salt farmer, Vance gained a commission during the War of 1812 and rose quickly from Major to Major General. He served in the Ohio House of Representatives in 1812–1813, 1815–1816 and 1818–1819. Elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1820, Vance served seven terms before losing a offer for an eighth term in 1834. Vance ran for governor in 1836 and served a single two-year term, losing a offer for re-election in 1838.

He intended to retire but was elected to the Ohio State Senate, and served in the Senate from 1840 to 1841. Vance ran again for the House of Representatives in 1842 and served two more terms in the House. He did not run for re-election in 1846. Vance was a delegate to the 1848 Whig National Convention and was a member of the Ohio State Constitutional Convention in 1851.

Joseph Desha (December 9, 1768 – October 11, 1842) was a U.S. Representative and the ninth governor of the U.S. state of Kentucky. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Desha's Huguenot ancestors fled from France to Pennsylvania, where Desha was born. Eventually, Desha's family settled near present-day Gallatin, Tennessee, where they were involved in many skirmishes with the Indians. Two of Desha's brothers were killed in these encounters, motivating him to volunteer for "Mad" Anthony Wayne's campaign against the Indians during the Northwest Indian War. Having by then resettled in Mason County, Kentucky, Desha parlayed his military record into several terms in the state legislature.

In 1807, Desha was elected to the first of six consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives. A Democratic-Republican, he was considered a war hawk, supporting the War of 1812. In 1813, he volunteered to serve in the war and commanded a division at the Battle of the Thames. Returning to Congress after the war, he was the only member of the Kentucky congressional delegation to oppose the unpopular Compensation Act of 1816. Nearly every other member of the delegation was defeated for reelection after the vote, but Desha's opposition to the act helped him retain his seat. He did not seek reelection in 1818, and made an unsuccessful run for governor in 1820, losing to John Adair. By 1824, the Panic of 1819 had ruined Kentucky's economy, and Desha made a second campaign for the governorship almost exclusively on promises of relief for the state's large debtor class. He was elected by a large majority, and debt relief partisans captured both houses of the General Assembly. After the Kentucky Court of Appeals overturned debt relief laws favored by Desha and the majority of the legislature, the legislators abolished the court and created a replacement court, to which Desha appointed several debt relief partisans. The existing court refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the move, and during a period known as the Old Court – New Court controversy, two courts of last resort existed in the state.

William J. Gaston (September 19, 1778 – January 23, 1844) was a jurist and United States Representative from North Carolina. Gaston is the author of the official state song of North Carolina, "The Old North State". Gaston County, North Carolina is named after him, as are Lake Gaston, the city of Gastonia, North Carolina, and Gaston Hall within Healy Hall at Georgetown University.

Gaston was born in New Bern, North Carolina on September 19, 1778. He was the son of Dr. Alexander Gaston and Margaret Sharpe.

He entered Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., at the age of thirteen, becoming its first student. Due to illness shortly thereafter, he also became its first dropout. After Georgetown and some education in North Carolina, he graduated from Princeton University in 1796, where he studied law.

Gaston was admitted to the bar in 1798 and commenced practice in New Bern. He was a member of the North Carolina General Assembly in 1800, served in the State House of Commons (now known as the House of Representatives) from 1807 to 1809, and as its Speaker in 1808. He was again a member of the State Senate in 1812, 1818, and 1819, and was elected as a Federalist to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Congresses (March 4, 1813 – March 3, 1817). While in Congress, he obtained a federal charter for Georgetown University. In 1814, Gaston was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society.

Gaston was not a candidate for to Congress in 1816. He again served in the House of Commons in 1824, 1827, 1828, 1829, and 1831. In 1832, Gaston delivered a graduation address at the University of North Carolina, which emphasized the duties of the graduates to themselves and their communities and urged them to take action against slavery.

Gaston was appointed judge of the North Carolina Supreme Court in 1833, holding the position until his death. As a justice of the North Carolina Supreme Court, Gaston wrote a decision that limited the control that slave-owners could exercise over enslaved humans. As a legislator, Gaston had introduced the bill that established the state Supreme Court as a distinct body in 1818. Gaston was offered but declined a nomination for election to the United States Senate in 1840, turned down an offer to be U.S. Attorney General for President William Henry Harrison.

Gaston won elective office on several occasions, even though the Constitution of North Carolina before 1835 seemed to prohibit it, because Gaston was a Roman Catholic. He was largely responsible, as a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1835, for removing official discrimination against Catholics from North Carolina law.

Anthony New (1747 – March 2, 1833) was an 18th-century and 19th-century American congressman and lawyer from Virginia and Kentucky.

Born in Gloucester County, Virginia, New completed preparatory studies, studied law and was admitted to the bar. During the Revolutionary War, he served as a colonel in the Virginia militia from 1780 to 1781.

He was elected an Anti-Administration to the United States House of Representatives in 1792, serving from 1793 to 1805. New moved to Elkton, Kentucky and was elected back to the House Democratic-Republican from Kentucky in 1810, serving from 1811 to 1813. He was elected back a third time in 1816, serving from 1817 to 1819 and a fourth time in 1820, serving from 1821 to 1823. Afterwards, he engaged in agricultural pursuits and died at his estate called "Dunheath" near Elkton, Kentucky on March 2, 1833 and was interred in the family cemetery on the estate.



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