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PSALMS Scroll JEWISH PENDANT Judaica GAZA STRIP DISENGAGEMENT EXPULSION Israel For Sale

PSALMS Scroll JEWISH PENDANT Judaica GAZA STRIP DISENGAGEMENT EXPULSION Israel


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PSALMS Scroll JEWISH PENDANT Judaica GAZA STRIP DISENGAGEMENT EXPULSION Israel:
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DESCRIPTION :Up for sale is a UNIQUE originalEXTREMELY RARE Biblical book of PSALMS of great historical Zionist importance and value , Being a pendant which was produced by and for the expeled Jewish inhabitants of GAZA STRIP during the period of the DISENGAGEMENT ( Also named GAZA EXPULSION or HITNATKUT ) who carried it on their necks and chests at the days of the disengagement. ( Please read hereunder about the DISENGAGEMENT from GAZA STRIP ). The pendant consists of a small , Printed as a rolled miniature SCROLL , BOOK OF PSALMS inside a small plastic bag with thread , On which , A few slogans in HEBREW are printed " A JEW DOESN'T EXPEL A JEW - HEVEL KATIF - THIS IS MY HOME " . The pendant is in ORANGE color - The color of the JEWISH RESISTANCE to the EXPULSION.MINIATURE scroll of PSALMS. 1.0 x 5.0". The condition is very good. Used.( Please look at scan for actual AS IS images ) .Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid envelope .

AUTHENTICITY : Thisis anORIGINALvintage MINIATURE BOOK OF PSALMS from the GAZA EXPULSION , NOT a reproduction , Immitation or a reprint , Itholds alife long GUARANTEE for its AUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.

PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal.SHIPPMENT : SHIPP worldwide via registered airmailis $19 .Will be sent protected inside a protective rigid envelope . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.

TheBook of orתהילים,Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply asPsalmsor "the Psalms", is the first book of theKetuvim("Writings"), the third section of theHebrew Bible, and a book of theChristianOld Testament.[1]The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοίpsalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music."[2]The book is ananthologyof individualpsalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches.[3][4]Many of the psalms are linked to the name ofKing David, although his authorship is not accepted by some modernBible scholars.[4] Contents[hide] 1 Structure 1.1 Benedictions 1.2 Superscriptions and attributions 1.3 Numbering 1.4 Additional psalms 2 Summary 3 Composition 3.1 Origins 3.2 King David and the Psalms 3.3 Poetic characteristics 3.4 Editorial Agenda 4 The ancient music of the Psalms 5 Themes 6 Later interpretation and influence 6.1 Overview 6.2 Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual 6.3 The Psalms in Christian worship 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Christianity 6.5 Oriental Christianity 6.6 Roman Catholic usage 6.7 Protestant usage 6.8 Anglican usage 6.9 Psalms in the Rastafari movement 6.10 Psalms in Islam 7 Psalms set to music 7.1 Multiple psalms as a single composition 7.2 Individual psalm settings 7.3 Bach 7.4 Psalm verses 7.5 Contemporary popular music 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links 11.1 Translations 11.2 Commentary and others Structure[edit] For theOrthodox Christiandivision into twentykathismata, seebelow. An 1880Baxter processillustration ofPsalm 23, from theReligious Tract Society's magazineThe Sunday at Home. Benedictions[edit] The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology (i.e., abenediction) – these divisions were probably introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of theTorah: Book 1 (Psalms 1–41) Book 2 (Psalms 42–72) Book 3 (Psalms 73–89) Book 4 (Psalms 90–106) Book 5 (Psalms 107–150)[5] Superscriptions and attributions[edit] Many psalms (116 of the 150) have ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster," including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies." Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song," or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm ("On the dedication of the temple," "For the memorial offering," etc.). Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common (73 psalms) beingof David, and thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life.[6]Others named include Moses (1), Asaph (12), the Sons of Korah (11) and Solomon (2). A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship,[7]but it could also mean "to David" or "for David".[8] Numbering[edit] Hebrew numbering (Masoretic) Greek numbering (Septuagint orVulgate) 1–8 1–8 9–10 9 11–113 10–112 114–115 113 116 114–115 117–146 116–145 147 146–147 148–150 148–150 Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation "Ps." Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew (Masoretic) and Greek (Septuagint) use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: follow the Greek numbering Catholic modern translations often use the Hebrew numbering (noting the Greek number) Eastern Orthodoxtranslations use the Greek numbering (noting the Hebrew number) For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew numbering is used, unless otherwise noted. The variance in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists. It is admitted by all that Pss. 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps. 144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15.[9]Pss. 42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. 42:6, 12; 43:5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. 146 and Ps. 147. Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss. 1, 2, 3, 4; 6 + 13; 9 + 10; 19, 20, 21; 56 + 57; 69 + 70; 114 + 115; 148, 149, 150.[10]A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. 14 + 70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. 14; the two antistrophes are Ps. 70.[11]It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps. 14 = 53, Ps. 70 = 40:14–18. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps. 108:2–6 = Ps. 57:8–12; Ps. 108:7–14 = Ps. 60:7–14; Ps. 71:1–3 = Ps. 31:2–4. This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes. Additional psalms[edit] TheSeptuagintbible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes aPsalm 151; a Hebrew version of this was found in thePsalms Scrollof theDead Sea Scrolls. Some versions of thePeshitta(the bible used in Syriac churches in the Middle East) includePsalms 152–155. There are also thePsalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely originally written in Hebrew, but surviving only in Greek andSyriactranslation. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set. Summary[edit] Hermann Gunkel's pioneering form-critical work on the psalms sought to provide a new and meaningful context in which to interpret individual psalms – not by looking at their literary context within the Psalter (which he did not see as significant), but by bringing together psalms of the samegenre(Gattung) from throughout the Psalter. Gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types: Hymns, songs of praise for God's work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, and conclude with a repetition of the call. Two sub-categories are "enthronement psalms," celebrating the enthronement ofYahwehas king, and Zion psalms, glorifying MountZion, God's dwelling-place in Jerusalem.[12]Gunkel also described a special subset of "eschatological hymns"[13]which includes themes of future restoration (Psalm 126) or of judgment (Psalm 82).[14] Communal laments, in which the nation laments some communal disaster.[15]Both communal and individual laments typically but not always include the following elements: 1) address to God, 2) description of suffering, 3) cursing of the party responsible for suffering, 4) protestation of innocence or admission of guilt, 5) petition for divine assistance, 6) faith in God's receipt of prayer, 7) anticipation of divine response, and 8) a song of thanksgiving.[16][17]In general, the difference between the individual and communal subtypes can be distinguished by the use of the singular "I" or the plural "we". However, the "I" could also be characterizing an individual's personal experience that was reflective of the entire community.[18] Royal Psalms, dealing with such matters as the king's coronation, marriage and battles.[15]None of them mentions any specific king by name, and their origin and use remain obscure;[19]several psalms, especially ps.93–99, concern the kingship of God, and might relate to an annual ceremony in which Yahweh would be ritually reinstated as king.[20] Individual lamentslamenting the fate of the particular individual who utters them. They are by far the most common type of psalm. They typically open with an invocation of Yahweh, followed by the lament itself and pleas for help, and often ending with an expression of confidence. A subset is the psalm of confidence, in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will deliver him from evils and enemies.[15] Individual thanksgiving psalms, the obverse of individual laments, in which the psalmist thanks God for deliverance from personal distress.[15] In addition to these five major genres, Gunkel also recognised a number of minor psalm-types, including: communal thanksgiving psalms, in which the whole nation thanks God for deliverance; wisdom psalms, reflecting the Old Testamentwisdom literature; pilgrimage psalms, sung by pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem; entrance and prophetic liturgies; and a group of mixed psalms which could not be assigned to any category.[21] Composition[edit] Scroll of the Psalms Origins[edit] The composition of the psalms spans at least five centuries, fromPsalm 29, probably adapted from an entire Canaanite hymn to Baal which was transposed into a hymn to Yahweh,[22]to others which are clearly from the post-Exilic period. The majority originated in the southernkingdom of Judahand were associated with the Temple in Jerusalem, where they probably functioned aslibrettoduring the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear, although there are indications in some of them: "Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar," suggests a connection with sacrifices, and "Let my prayer be counted as incense" suggests a connection with the offering of incense.[3] King David and the Psalms[edit] Seventy-three of the 150 psalms in the Bible are attributed to KingDavid. One of theDead Sea Scrolls(11QPsa) attributes 3600 tehilim (songs of praise) plus other compositions to him.[23]Nevertheless, there is no hard evidence for Davidic authorship of any of them.[2]"Davidic authorship is not accepted as historical fact by modern scholars," noteAdele BerlinandMarc Zvi Brettlerin theJewish Study Bible, but is seen rather as the way in which the ancients "confirm[ed] the divine inspiration and authority" of the writings by linking them to well-known biblical figures.[4] Nine Psalms[citation needed]are attributed to David elsewhere in the Bible: 1 Chronicles 16:7-36contains parts of Psalms 96, 105 and 106, and this passage is stated to be by David. Acts 4:25states that Psalm 2 is by David. Acts 2:25-28states that Psalm 16 is by David. Romans 4:6-8contains parts of Psalms 32 and this passage is stated to be by David. Romans 11:9contains part of Psalm 69, the apostle Paul stated that it is by David Hebrews 4:7states that Psalm 95 is by David. Matthew 24:43-44,Mark 12:36andLuke 20:42Jesus attributes part of Psalm 110 to David. Acts 2:34-35also states that Psalm 110 is by David. Poetic characteristics[edit] Thebiblical poetryof Psalms usesparallelismas its primary poetic device. Parallelism is a kind ofrhyme, in which an idea is developed by the use of repetition, synonyms, or opposites.[24]Synonymous parallelism involves two lines expressing essentially the same idea. An example of synonymous parallelism: The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? (Psalm 27:1) Two lines expressing opposites is known asantithetic parallelism. An example of antithetic parallelism: The LORD watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish. (Psalm 1:6) Editorial Agenda[edit] Many scholars believe the individual Psalms were redacted into a single collection in second-temple times. It had long been recognized that the collection bore the imprint of an underlying message or 'meta-narrative', but that this message remained concealed, asAugustinesaid, 'The sequence of the Psalms seems to me to contain the secret of a mighty mystery, but its meaning has not been revealed to me.' (Enarr.on Ps. 150.1) Others pointed out the presence of concatenation, that is, adjacent Psalms sharing similar words and themes. In time, this approach developed into recognizing overarching themes shared by whole groups of psalms.[25] In 1985,Gerald H. Wilson'sThe Editing of the Hebrew Psalterproposed, by parallel with other ancient eastern hymn collections, that psalms at the beginning and end (or "seams") of the five books of Psalms have thematic significance, corresponding in particular with the placement of the royal psalms. He pointed out that there was a progression of ideas, from adversity, through the crux of the collection in the apparent failure of the covenant in Psalm 89, leading to a concert of praise at the end. He concluded that the collection was redacted to be a retrospective of the failure of the Davidic covenant, exhorting Israel to trust in God alone in a non-messianic future.[26]Walter Brueggemannsuggested that the underlying editorial purpose was oriented rather towards wisdom or sapiential concerns, addressing the issues of how to live the life of faith. Psalm 1 calls the reader to a life of obedience; Psalm 73 (Brueggemann's crux psalm) faces the crisis when divine faithfulness is in doubt; Psalm 150 represents faith's triumph, when God is praised not for his rewards, but for his being.[27]In 1997, David. C. Mitchell'sThe Message of the Psaltertook a quite different line. Building on the work of Wilson and others,[28]Mitchell proposed that the Psalter embodies an eschatological timetable like that of Zechariah 9–14.[29]This programme includes the gathering of exiled Israel by a bridegroom-king; his establishment of a kingdom; his violent death; Israel scattered in the wilderness, regathered and again imperilled, then rescued by a king from the heavens, who establishes his kingdom from Zion, brings peace and prosperity to the earth and receives the homage of the nations. Such a timetable is confirmed by parallels from the Baal Cycle to Roman-periodmidrashim. These three views—Wilson's non-messianic retrospective of the Davidic covenant, Brueggemann's sapiential instruction, and Mitchell's eschatologico-messianic programme—all have their followers, although the sapiential agenda has been somewhat eclipsed by the other two. Shortly before his untimely death in 2005, Wilson modified his position to allow for the existence of messianic prophecy within the Psalms' redactional agenda.[30]Mitchell's position remains largely unchanged, although he now sees the issue as identifying when the historical beginning of the Psalms turns to eschatology.[31] The ancient music of the Psalms[edit] The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing (e.g. Pss. 33:1-3; 92:1-3; 96:1-3; 98:1; 101:1; 150). Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played (Pss. 4, 5, 6, 8, 67). Some refer to singing at thesheminitor octave (Pss. 6, 12). And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, likemut la-ben(Death of the son; Ps. 9),ayelet ha-shachar(hind of the dawn; Ps. 22);shoshanim(Lilies; Ps. 45); oralamoth(Maidens?; Ps. 46). Despite the frequently-heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it still exist. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in thetonus peregrinusmelody to Psalm 114.[32]Cantillation signs, to record the melody sung, were in use since ancient times; evidence of them can be found in the manuscripts of the oldest extant copies of Psalms in theDead Sea Scrollsand are even more extensive in theMasoretic text, which dates to theEarly Middle Agesand whose Tiberian scribes claimed to be basing their work on temple-period signs. (See Moshe ben Asher's 'Song of the Vine' colophon to the Codex Cairensis). However, any knowledge of how to read these signs was lost in ancient times, and modernBible translationsdo not include anymusical notation.[33] Several attempts have been made to decode the Masoretic cantillation, but the most successful is that ofSuzanne Haïk-Vantoura(1928–2000) in the last quarter of the 20th century.[34]Although some have dismissed Haïk-Vantoura's system, Mitchell has repeatedly defended it, showing that, when applied to the Masoretic cantillation of Psalm 114, it produces a melody recognizable as thetonus peregrinusof church and synagogue.[35]Mitchell includes musical transcriptions of the temple psalmody of Psalms 120–134 in his commentary on the Songs of Ascents. Themes[edit] Most individual psalms involve the praise of God – for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God, and God in turn will hear their prayers and respond. Worst of all is when God "hides his face" and refuses to respond, because this puts in question theefficacy of prayerwhich is the underlying assumption of the Book of Psalms.[36] Some psalms are called "maskil" (maschil) because in addition they impart wisdom. Most notable of these is Psalm 142 which is sometimes called the "Maskil of David", others include Psalm 32 and Psalm 78.[37]The term derives frommaskilmeaning "enlightened" or "wise". Later interpretation and influence[edit] David Playing the HarpbyJan de Bray, 1670. Hebrewtext of Psalm 1:1-2 AJewishman reads Psalms at theWestern Wall Overview[edit] Individual psalms were originally hymns, to be used on various occasions and at various sacred sites; later, some were anthologised, and might have been understood within the various anthologies (e.g., ps.123 as one of the Psalms of Ascent); finally, individual psalms might be understood within the Psalter as a whole, either narrating the life of David or providing instruction like the Torah. In later Jewish and Christian tradition, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feeling.[38] Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual[edit] Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship: Some bear a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song. Fifty-eight Psalms bear the Greek ψαλμόςpsalmos, a psalm), a lyricode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. Psalm 145, and many others, have the Greekhymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.Tehillahis also the singular of the name of the book in Hebrew,Tehillim. Six Psalms (16, 56–60) have the titlemichtam(מכתם; "gold").[39]Rashisuggests that "michtam" refers to an item that a person carries with him at all times, hence, these Psalms contain concepts or ideas that are pertinent at every stage and setting throughout life, deemed vital as part of day-to-day spiritual awareness.[40] Psalm 7(along withHabakkukch. 3)[41]bears the There are three interpretations:[42](a) According to Rashi and others, this term stems from the rootshegaga,meaning "mistake" – David committed some sin and is singing in the form of a prayer to redeem himself from it; (b) shigayon was a type of musical instrument; (c)Ibn Ezraconsiders the word to mean 'longing,' as in the verse tamid." Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Many complete Psalms and verses from Psalms appear in themorning services("Shacharit"). Thepesukei dezimracomponent incorporates Psalms 30, 100 and 145 – 150. Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei", which is really the first word of 2 verses appended to the beginning of the Psalm), is read three times every day: once in shacharit as part ofpesukei dezimrah, as mentioned, once, along with Psalm 20, as part of the morning'sconcluding prayers, and once at the start of theAfternoon service. OnFestival daysand Sabbaths, instead of concluding the morning service, it precedes theMussafservice. Psalms 95–99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service. Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" –Shir shel yom– is read after themorning serviceeach day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in theMishnah(the initial codification of the Jewishoral tradition) in the tractate "Tamid". According to the Talmud, these daily Psalms were originally recited on that day of the week by the Levites in the Temple in Jerusalem. FromRosh Rabbah, Psalm 27 is recited twice daily following the morning and evening services. There is aMinhag(custom) to say Psalm 30 each morning ofChanukkahafter Shacharit: some say this "instead" of the regular "Psalm for the Day", others say this additionally. When aJewdies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlelight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but in contemporary practice, this service is provided by an employee of the funeral home orChevra kadisha. Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. Each week, some also say a Psalm connected to that week's events or theTorah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notablyLubavitch, and otherChasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning service, on theSabbath precedingthecalculated appearance of the new moon. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a vehicle for gaining God's favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as poverty, disease, or physical danger; in many synagogues, Psalms are recited after services for the security of the State of Israel. Note thatSefer ha-Chinuch[44]states that this practice is designed not to achieve favor, as such, but rather to inculcate belief inDivine Providenceinto one's consciousness – as consistent withMaimonides'general viewon Providence. (Relatedly, the Hebrew verb for prayer –hitpalalהתפלל – is in fact thereflexive formofpalalפלל, to judge. Thus, "to pray" conveys the notion of "judging oneself": ultimately, the purpose of prayer –tefilahתפלה – is to transform ourselves; for the relationship between prayer and psalms – "tehillahandtefillah" – seeS. R. Hirsch,Horeb§620. SeealsounderJewish services.) The Psalms in Christian worship[edit] Part ofa serieson Christianity JesusChrist [show] BibleFoundations [show] Theology[show] HistoryTradition [show] Related topics[show] DenominationsGroups [show] Christianity portal vte St. Florian's psalter, 14th or 15th century, Old Polish Translation Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum). New Testamentreferences show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. TheEastern have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate forbishopwould be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically[45]during their time as monks. Paul the Apostlequotes psalms (specifically Psalms14and53, which are nearly identical) as the basis for his theory oforiginal sin, and includes the scripture in theEpistle to the Romans, chapter 3. Several conservative Protestant denominations sing only the Psalms (some churches also sing the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; examples are theReformed Presbyterian Church of North America, thePresbyterian Reformed Church (North America)and theFree Church of Scotland (Continuing). Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers[citation needed][peacockterm]. Psalm 22is of particular importance during the season ofLentas a Psalm of continued faith during severe testing. Psalm 23,The LORD is My Shepherd, offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for churchfuneralservices, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; Psalm 51,Have mercy on me O God, called theMisererefrom the first word in its Latin version, is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy[citation needed], in bothDivine LiturgyandHours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings; Psalm 82is found in theBook of Common Prayeras a funeral recitation. Psalm 103,Bless the Lord, O my soul, is one of the best-known[citation needed]prayers of praise. The psalm was adapted for the musicalGodspell; Psalm 137,By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept, is a moody meditation upon living inslavery, and has been used in at least onespiritual[citation needed], as well as one Orthodox church often uses this hymn duringLent. This psalm was adapted for the songOn the Willowsin the musicalGodspell. New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called aPsalter. Eastern Orthodox Christianity[edit] See also:Kathisma Orthodox Christiansand Greek-Catholics (Eastern Catholicswho follow theByzantine rite), have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. The official version of thePsalterused by the Orthodox Church is theSeptuagint. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20kathismata(Greek: καθίσματα; Slavonic: каѳисмы,kafismy; lit. "sittings") and eachkathisma(Greek: κάθισμα; Slavonic: каѳисма,kafisma) is further subdivided into threestases(Greek: στάσεις,staseislit. "standings", sing. στάσις,stasis), so-called because the faithful stand at the end of eachstasisfor theGlory to the Father.... AtVespersandMatins, differentkathismataare read at different times of theliturgical yearand on different days of the week, according to the Church's calendar, so that all 150 psalms (20kathismata) are read in the course of a week. DuringGreat Lent, the number ofkathismatais increased so that the entire Psalter is read twice a week. In the twentieth century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks. Aside fromkathismareadings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including theservices of the Hoursand theDivine Liturgy. In particular, the penitentialPsalm 50is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used asProkimena(introductions to Scriptural readings) andStichera. The bulk ofVesperswould still be composed of Psalms even if the kathisma were to be disregarded;Psalm 119, "The Psalm of theLaw", is the centerpiece ofMatinson Saturdays, some Sundays, and theFuneralservice. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition. Oriental Christianity[edit] Several branches ofOriental Orthodoxand thoseEastern Catholicswho follow one of the Oriental Rites will chant the entire Psalter during the course of a day during theDaily Office. This practice continues to be a requirement ofmonasticsin the Oriental churches. Roman Catholic usage[edit] The Psalms have always been an important part ofCatholicliturgy. TheLiturgy of the Hoursis centered on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixedmelodic formulasknown aspsalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge ofLatin(the language of theRoman Rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. However, until the end of the Middle Ages, it was not unknown for the laity to join in the singing of theLittle Office of Our Lady, which was a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours providing a fixed daily cycle of twenty-five psalms to be recited, and nine other psalms divided across Matins. The work of BishopRichard Challonerin providing devotional materials in English meant that many of the psalms were familiar to English-speaking Catholics from the eighteenth century onwards. Challoner translated the entirety of the Lady Office into English, as well as Sunday Vespers and daily Compline. He also provided other individual Psalms such as 129/130 for prayer in his devotional books. Challoner is also noted for revising theDouay-Rheims Bible, and the translations he used in his devotional books are taken from this work. Until theSecond Vatican Councilthe Psalms were either recited on a one-week or, less commonly (as in the case ofAmbrosian rite), two-week cycle. Different one-week schemata were employed: most secular clergy followed the Roman distribution, while Monastic Houses almost universally followed that ofSt Benedict, with only a few congregations (such as theBenedictinesof St Maur) following individualistic arrangements. TheBreviaryintroduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four-week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one-week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. Official approval was also given to other arrangements (see"Short" Breviaries in the 20th and early 21st century Americafor an in-progress study) by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one-week or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of theTrappists(see for examplethe Divine Office schedule at New Melleray Abbey). TheGeneral Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms: directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm); antiphonally(two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and responsorially(the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse). Of these three the antiphonal mode is the most widely followed. Over the centuries, the use of complete Psalms in theliturgydeclined. After theSecond Vatican Council(which also permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy), longer psalm texts were reintroduced into the Mass, during the readings. Therevisionof theRoman Missalafter theSecond Vatican Councilreintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called theResponsorial Psalm,is usually sung or recited responsorially, although theGeneral Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation. Protestant usage[edit] Psalm 1 in a form of theSternhold and Hopkinsversion widespread in Anglican usage before the English Civil War (1628 printing). It was from this version that the armies sang before going into battle. Following theProtestant Reformation,versified translationsof many of the Psalms were set ashymns. These were particularly popular in theCalvinisttradition, where in the past they were typically sungto the exclusion of hymns.Calvinhimself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage, but the completedPsaltereventually used in church services consisted exclusively of translations byClément MarotandThéodore de Bèze, on melodies by a number of composers, includingLouis Bourgeoisand a certain Maistre Pierre.Martin Luther'sA Mighty Fortress Is Our Godis based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were theScottish Psalterand the paraphrases byIsaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, th Psalm Book(1640). By the 20th century, they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services. However, the Psalms are popular for private devotion among many Protestants and still used in many churches for traditional worship.[47]There exists in some circles a custom of reading one Psalm and one chapter ofProverbsa day, corresponding to the day of the month. Metrical Psalms are still very popular among manyReformed Churches. Anglican usage[edit] Anglican chantis a method of singing prose versions of the Psalms. In the early 17th century, when the King James Bible was introduced, the metrical arrangements by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins were also popular and were provided with printed tunes. This version and theNew Version of the Psalms of Davidby Tate and Brady produced in the late seventeenth century (see article onMetrical Psalter) remained the normal congregational way of singing psalms in the Church of England until well into the nineteenth century. In Great Britain, the Coverdale psalter still lies at the heart of daily worship inCathedralsand manyparish churches. The newCommon Worshipservice book has a companion psalter in modern English. The version of the Psalter in the AmericanBook of Common Prayerprior to the 1979 edition is a The Psalter in the American Book of Common Prayer of 1979 is a new translation, with some attempt to keep the rhythms of the Coverdale Psalter. Psalms in the Rastafari movement[edit] The Psalms are one of the most popular parts of the Bible among followers of theRastafari movement.[48]Rasta singerPrince Far Ireleased an atmospheric spoken version of the psalms,Psalms for I, set to aroots reggaebackdrop fromThe Aggrovators. TheBook of orתהילים,Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply asPsalmsor "the Psalms", is the first book of theKetuvim("Writings"), the third section of theHebrew Bible, and a book of theChristianOld Testament.[1]The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοίpsalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music."[2]The book is ananthologyof individualpsalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches.[3][4]Many of the psalms are linked to the name ofKing David, although his authorship is not accepted by some modernBible scholars.[4] Contents[hide] 1 Structure 1.1 Benedictions 1.2 Superscriptions and attributions 1.3 Numbering 1.4 Additional psalms 2 Summary 3 Composition 3.1 Origins 3.2 King David and the Psalms 3.3 Poetic characteristics 3.4 Editorial Agenda 4 The ancient music of the Psalms 5 Themes 6 Later interpretation and influence 6.1 Overview 6.2 Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual 6.3 The Psalms in Christian worship 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Christianity 6.5 Oriental Christianity 6.6 Roman Catholic usage 6.7 Protestant usage 6.8 Anglican usage 6.9 Psalms in the Rastafari movement 6.10 Psalms in Islam 7 Psalms set to music 7.1 Multiple psalms as a single composition 7.2 Individual psalm settings 7.3 Bach 7.4 Psalm verses 7.5 Contemporary popular music 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links 11.1 Translations 11.2 Commentary and others Structure[edit] For theOrthodox Christiandivision into twentykathismata, seebelow. An 1880Baxter processillustration ofPsalm 23, from theReligious Tract Society's magazineThe Sunday at Home. Benedictions[edit] The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology (i.e., abenediction) – these divisions were probably introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of theTorah: Book 1 (Psalms 1–41) Book 2 (Psalms 42–72) Book 3 (Psalms 73–89) Book 4 (Psalms 90–106) Book 5 (Psalms 107–150)[5] Superscriptions and attributions[edit] Many psalms (116 of the 150) have ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster," including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies." Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song," or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm ("On the dedication of the temple," "For the memorial offering," etc.). Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common (73 psalms) beingof David, and thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life.[6]Others named include Moses (1), Asaph (12), the Sons of Korah (11) and Solomon (2). A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship,[7]but it could also mean "to David" or "for David".[8] Numbering[edit] Hebrew numbering (Masoretic) Greek numbering (Septuagint orVulgate) 1–8 1–8 9–10 9 11–113 10–112 114–115 113 116 114–115 117–146 116–145 147 146–147 148–150 148–150 Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation "Ps." Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew (Masoretic) and Greek (Septuagint) use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: follow the Greek numbering Catholic modern translations often use the Hebrew numbering (noting the Greek number) Eastern Orthodoxtranslations use the Greek numbering (noting the Hebrew number) For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew numbering is used, unless otherwise noted. The variance in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists. It is admitted by all that Pss. 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps. 144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15.[9]Pss. 42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. 42:6, 12; 43:5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. 146 and Ps. 147. Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss. 1, 2, 3, 4; 6 + 13; 9 + 10; 19, 20, 21; 56 + 57; 69 + 70; 114 + 115; 148, 149, 150.[10]A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. 14 + 70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. 14; the two antistrophes are Ps. 70.[11]It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps. 14 = 53, Ps. 70 = 40:14–18. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps. 108:2–6 = Ps. 57:8–12; Ps. 108:7–14 = Ps. 60:7–14; Ps. 71:1–3 = Ps. 31:2–4. This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes. Additional psalms[edit] TheSeptuagintbible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes aPsalm 151; a Hebrew version of this was found in thePsalms Scrollof theDead Sea Scrolls. Some versions of thePeshitta(the bible used in Syriac churches in the Middle East) includePsalms 152–155. There are also thePsalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely originally written in Hebrew, but surviving only in Greek andSyriactranslation. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set. Summary[edit] Hermann Gunkel's pioneering form-critical work on the psalms sought to provide a new and meaningful context in which to interpret individual psalms – not by looking at their literary context within the Psalter (which he did not see as significant), but by bringing together psalms of the samegenre(Gattung) from throughout the Psalter. Gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types: Hymns, songs of praise for God's work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, and conclude with a repetition of the call. Two sub-categories are "enthronement psalms," celebrating the enthronement ofYahwehas king, and Zion psalms, glorifying MountZion, God's dwelling-place in Jerusalem.[12]Gunkel also described a special subset of "eschatological hymns"[13]which includes themes of future restoration (Psalm 126) or of judgment (Psalm 82).[14] Communal laments, in which the nation laments some communal disaster.[15]Both communal and individual laments typically but not always include the following elements: 1) address to God, 2) description of suffering, 3) cursing of the party responsible for suffering, 4) protestation of innocence or admission of guilt, 5) petition for divine assistance, 6) faith in God's receipt of prayer, 7) anticipation of divine response, and 8) a song of thanksgiving.[16][17]In general, the difference between the individual and communal subtypes can be distinguished by the use of the singular "I" or the plural "we". However, the "I" could also be characterizing an individual's personal experience that was reflective of the entire community.[18] Royal Psalms, dealing with such matters as the king's coronation, marriage and battles.[15]None of them mentions any specific king by name, and their origin and use remain obscure;[19]several psalms, especially ps.93–99, concern the kingship of God, and might relate to an annual ceremony in which Yahweh would be ritually reinstated as king.[20] Individual lamentslamenting the fate of the particular individual who utters them. They are by far the most common type of psalm. They typically open with an invocation of Yahweh, followed by the lament itself and pleas for help, and often ending with an expression of confidence. A subset is the psalm of confidence, in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will deliver him from evils and enemies.[15] Individual thanksgiving psalms, the obverse of individual laments, in which the psalmist thanks God for deliverance from personal distress.[15] In addition to these five major genres, Gunkel also recognised a number of minor psalm-types, including: communal thanksgiving psalms, in which the whole nation thanks God for deliverance; wisdom psalms, reflecting the Old Testamentwisdom literature; pilgrimage psalms, sung by pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem; entrance and prophetic liturgies; and a group of mixed psalms which could not be assigned to any category.[21] Composition[edit] Scroll of the Psalms Origins[edit] The composition of the psalms spans at least five centuries, fromPsalm 29, probably adapted from an entire Canaanite hymn to Baal which was transposed into a hymn to Yahweh,[22]to others which are clearly from the post-Exilic period. The majority originated in the southernkingdom of Judahand were associated with the Temple in Jerusalem, where they probably functioned aslibrettoduring the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear, although there are indications in some of them: "Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar," suggests a connection with sacrifices, and "Let my prayer be counted as incense" suggests a connection with the offering of incense.[3] King David and the Psalms[edit] Seventy-three of the 150 psalms in the Bible are attributed to KingDavid. One of theDead Sea Scrolls(11QPsa) attributes 3600 tehilim (songs of praise) plus other compositions to him.[23]Nevertheless, there is no hard evidence for Davidic authorship of any of them.[2]"Davidic authorship is not accepted as historical fact by modern scholars," noteAdele BerlinandMarc Zvi Brettlerin theJewish Study Bible, but is seen rather as the way in which the ancients "confirm[ed] the divine inspiration and authority" of the writings by linking them to well-known biblical figures.[4] Nine Psalms[citation needed]are attributed to David elsewhere in the Bible: 1 Chronicles 16:7-36contains parts of Psalms 96, 105 and 106, and this passage is stated to be by David. Acts 4:25states that Psalm 2 is by David. Acts 2:25-28states that Psalm 16 is by David. Romans 4:6-8contains parts of Psalms 32 and this passage is stated to be by David. Romans 11:9contains part of Psalm 69, the apostle Paul stated that it is by David Hebrews 4:7states that Psalm 95 is by David. Matthew 24:43-44,Mark 12:36andLuke 20:42Jesus attributes part of Psalm 110 to David. Acts 2:34-35also states that Psalm 110 is by David. Poetic characteristics[edit] Thebiblical poetryof Psalms usesparallelismas its primary poetic device. Parallelism is a kind ofrhyme, in which an idea is developed by the use of repetition, synonyms, or opposites.[24]Synonymous parallelism involves two lines expressing essentially the same idea. An example of synonymous parallelism: The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? (Psalm 27:1) Two lines expressing opposites is known asantithetic parallelism. An example of antithetic parallelism: The LORD watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish. (Psalm 1:6) Editorial Agenda[edit] Many scholars believe the individual Psalms were redacted into a single collection in second-temple times. It had long been recognized that the collection bore the imprint of an underlying message or 'meta-narrative', but that this message remained concealed, asAugustinesaid, 'The sequence of the Psalms seems to me to contain the secret of a mighty mystery, but its meaning has not been revealed to me.' (Enarr.on Ps. 150.1) Others pointed out the presence of concatenation, that is, adjacent Psalms sharing similar words and themes. In time, this approach developed into recognizing overarching themes shared by whole groups of psalms.[25] In 1985,Gerald H. Wilson'sThe Editing of the Hebrew Psalterproposed, by parallel with other ancient eastern hymn collections, that psalms at the beginning and end (or "seams") of the five books of Psalms have thematic significance, corresponding in particular with the placement of the royal psalms. He pointed out that there was a progression of ideas, from adversity, through the crux of the collection in the apparent failure of the covenant in Psalm 89, leading to a concert of praise at the end. He concluded that the collection was redacted to be a retrospective of the failure of the Davidic covenant, exhorting Israel to trust in God alone in a non-messianic future.[26]Walter Brueggemannsuggested that the underlying editorial purpose was oriented rather towards wisdom or sapiential concerns, addressing the issues of how to live the life of faith. Psalm 1 calls the reader to a life of obedience; Psalm 73 (Brueggemann's crux psalm) faces the crisis when divine faithfulness is in doubt; Psalm 150 represents faith's triumph, when God is praised not for his rewards, but for his being.[27]In 1997, David. C. Mitchell'sThe Message of the Psaltertook a quite different line. Building on the work of Wilson and others,[28]Mitchell proposed that the Psalter embodies an eschatological timetable like that of Zechariah 9–14.[29]This programme includes the gathering of exiled Israel by a bridegroom-king; his establishment of a kingdom; his violent death; Israel scattered in the wilderness, regathered and again imperilled, then rescued by a king from the heavens, who establishes his kingdom from Zion, brings peace and prosperity to the earth and receives the homage of the nations. Such a timetable is confirmed by parallels from the Baal Cycle to Roman-periodmidrashim. These three views—Wilson's non-messianic retrospective of the Davidic covenant, Brueggemann's sapiential instruction, and Mitchell's eschatologico-messianic programme—all have their followers, although the sapiential agenda has been somewhat eclipsed by the other two. Shortly before his untimely death in 2005, Wilson modified his position to allow for the existence of messianic prophecy within the Psalms' redactional agenda.[30]Mitchell's position remains largely unchanged, although he now sees the issue as identifying when the historical beginning of the Psalms turns to eschatology.[31] The ancient music of the Psalms[edit] The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing (e.g. Pss. 33:1-3; 92:1-3; 96:1-3; 98:1; 101:1; 150). Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played (Pss. 4, 5, 6, 8, 67). Some refer to singing at thesheminitor octave (Pss. 6, 12). And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, likemut la-ben(Death of the son; Ps. 9),ayelet ha-shachar(hind of the dawn; Ps. 22);shoshanim(Lilies; Ps. 45); oralamoth(Maidens?; Ps. 46). Despite the frequently-heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it still exist. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in thetonus peregrinusmelody to Psalm 114.[32]Cantillation signs, to record the melody sung, were in use since ancient times; evidence of them can be found in the manuscripts of the oldest extant copies of Psalms in theDead Sea Scrollsand are even more extensive in theMasoretic text, which dates to theEarly Middle Agesand whose Tiberian scribes claimed to be basing their work on temple-period signs. (See Moshe ben Asher's 'Song of the Vine' colophon to the Codex Cairensis). However, any knowledge of how to read these signs was lost in ancient times, and modernBible translationsdo not include anymusical notation.[33] Several attempts have been made to decode the Masoretic cantillation, but the most successful is that ofSuzanne Haïk-Vantoura(1928–2000) in the last quarter of the 20th century.[34]Although some have dismissed Haïk-Vantoura's system, Mitchell has repeatedly defended it, showing that, when applied to the Masoretic cantillation of Psalm 114, it produces a melody recognizable as thetonus peregrinusof church and synagogue.[35]Mitchell includes musical transcriptions of the temple psalmody of Psalms 120–134 in his commentary on the Songs of Ascents. Themes[edit] Most individual psalms involve the praise of God – for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God, and God in turn will hear their prayers and respond. Worst of all is when God "hides his face" and refuses to respond, because this puts in question theefficacy of prayerwhich is the underlying assumption of the Book of Psalms.[36] Some psalms are called "maskil" (maschil) because in addition they impart wisdom. Most notable of these is Psalm 142 which is sometimes called the "Maskil of David", others include Psalm 32 and Psalm 78.[37]The term derives frommaskilmeaning "enlightened" or "wise". Later interpretation and influence[edit] David Playing the HarpbyJan de Bray, 1670. Hebrewtext of Psalm 1:1-2 AJewishman reads Psalms at theWestern Wall Overview[edit] Individual psalms were originally hymns, to be used on various occasions and at various sacred sites; later, some were anthologised, and might have been understood within the various anthologies (e.g., ps.123 as one of the Psalms of Ascent); finally, individual psalms might be understood within the Psalter as a whole, either narrating the life of David or providing instruction like the Torah. In later Jewish and Christian tradition, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feeling.[38] Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual[edit] Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship: Some bear a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song. Fifty-eight Psalms bear the Greek ψαλμόςpsalmos, a psalm), a lyricode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. Psalm 145, and many others, have the Greekhymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.Tehillahis also the singular of the name of the book in Hebrew,Tehillim. Six Psalms (16, 56–60) have the titlemichtam(מכתם; "gold").[39]Rashisuggests that "michtam" refers to an item that a person carries with him at all times, hence, these Psalms contain concepts or ideas that are pertinent at every stage and setting throughout life, deemed vital as part of day-to-day spiritual awareness.[40] Psalm 7(along withHabakkukch. 3)[41]bears the There are three interpretations:[42](a) According to Rashi and others, this term stems from the rootshegaga,meaning "mistake" – David committed some sin and is singing in the form of a prayer to redeem himself from it; (b) shigayon was a type of musical instrument; (c)Ibn Ezraconsiders the word to mean 'longing,' as in the verse tamid." Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Many complete Psalms and verses from Psalms appear in themorning services("Shacharit"). Thepesukei dezimracomponent incorporates Psalms 30, 100 and 145 – 150. Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei", which is really the first word of 2 verses appended to the beginning of the Psalm), is read three times every day: once in shacharit as part ofpesukei dezimrah, as mentioned, once, along with Psalm 20, as part of the morning'sconcluding prayers, and once at the start of theAfternoon service. OnFestival daysand Sabbaths, instead of concluding the morning service, it precedes theMussafservice. Psalms 95–99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service. Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" –Shir shel yom– is read after themorning serviceeach day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in theMishnah(the initial codification of the Jewishoral tradition) in the tractate "Tamid". According to the Talmud, these daily Psalms were originally recited on that day of the week by the Levites in the Temple in Jerusalem. FromRosh Rabbah, Psalm 27 is recited twice daily following the morning and evening services. There is aMinhag(custom) to say Psalm 30 each morning ofChanukkahafter Shacharit: some say this "instead" of the regular "Psalm for the Day", others say this additionally. When aJewdies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlelight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but in contemporary practice, this service is provided by an employee of the funeral home orChevra kadisha. Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. Each week, some also say a Psalm connected to that week's events or theTorah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notablyLubavitch, and otherChasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning service, on theSabbath precedingthecalculated appearance of the new moon. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a vehicle for gaining God's favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as poverty, disease, or physical danger; in many synagogues, Psalms are recited after services for the security of the State of Israel. Note thatSefer ha-Chinuch[44]states that this practice is designed not to achieve favor, as such, but rather to inculcate belief inDivine Providenceinto one's consciousness – as consistent withMaimonides'general viewon Providence. (Relatedly, the Hebrew verb for prayer –hitpalalהתפלל – is in fact thereflexive formofpalalפלל, to judge. Thus, "to pray" conveys the notion of "judging oneself": ultimately, the purpose of prayer –tefilahתפלה – is to transform ourselves; for the relationship between prayer and psalms – "tehillahandtefillah" – seeS. R. Hirsch,Horeb§620. SeealsounderJewish services.) The Psalms in Christian worship[edit] Part ofa serieson Christianity JesusChrist [show] BibleFoundations [show] Theology[show] HistoryTradition [show] Related topics[show] DenominationsGroups [show] Christianity portal vte St. Florian's psalter, 14th or 15th century, Old Polish Translation Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum). New Testamentreferences show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. TheEastern have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate forbishopwould be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically[45]during their time as monks. Paul the Apostlequotes psalms (specifically Psalms14and53, which are nearly identical) as the basis for his theory oforiginal sin, and includes the scripture in theEpistle to the Romans, chapter 3. Several conservative Protestant denominations sing only the Psalms (some churches also sing the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; examples are theReformed Presbyterian Church of North America, thePresbyterian Reformed Church (North America)and theFree Church of Scotland (Continuing). Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers[citation needed][peacockterm]. Psalm 22is of particular importance during the season ofLentas a Psalm of continued faith during severe testing. Psalm 23,The LORD is My Shepherd, offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for churchfuneralservices, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; Psalm 51,Have mercy on me O God, called theMisererefrom the first word in its Latin version, is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy[citation needed], in bothDivine LiturgyandHours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings; Psalm 82is found in theBook of Common Prayeras a funeral recitation. Psalm 103,Bless the Lord, O my soul, is one of the best-known[citation needed]prayers of praise. The psalm was adapted for the musicalGodspell; Psalm 137,By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept, is a moody meditation upon living inslavery, and has been used in at least onespiritual[citation needed], as well as one Orthodox church often uses this hymn duringLent. This psalm was adapted for the songOn the Willowsin the musicalGodspell. New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called aPsalter. Eastern Orthodox Christianity[edit] See also:Kathisma Orthodox Christiansand Greek-Catholics (Eastern Catholicswho follow theByzantine rite), have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. The official version of thePsalterused by the Orthodox Church is theSeptuagint. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20kathismata(Greek: καθίσματα; Slavonic: каѳисмы,kafismy; lit. "sittings") and eachkathisma(Greek: κάθισμα; Slavonic: каѳисма,kafisma) is further subdivided into threestases(Greek: στάσεις,staseislit. "standings", sing. στάσις,stasis), so-called because the faithful stand at the end of eachstasisfor theGlory to the Father.... AtVespersandMatins, differentkathismataare read at different times of theliturgical yearand on different days of the week, according to the Church's calendar, so that all 150 psalms (20kathismata) are read in the course of a week. DuringGreat Lent, the number ofkathismatais increased so that the entire Psalter is read twice a week. In the twentieth century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks. Aside fromkathismareadings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including theservices of the Hoursand theDivine Liturgy. In particular, the penitentialPsalm 50is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used asProkimena(introductions to Scriptural readings) andStichera. The bulk ofVesperswould still be composed of Psalms even if the kathisma were to be disregarded;Psalm 119, "The Psalm of theLaw", is the centerpiece ofMatinson Saturdays, some Sundays, and theFuneralservice. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition. Oriental Christianity[edit] Several branches ofOriental Orthodoxand thoseEastern Catholicswho follow one of the Oriental Rites will chant the entire Psalter during the course of a day during theDaily Office. This practice continues to be a requirement ofmonasticsin the Oriental churches. Roman Catholic usage[edit] The Psalms have always been an important part ofCatholicliturgy. TheLiturgy of the Hoursis centered on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixedmelodic formulasknown aspsalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge ofLatin(the language of theRoman Rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. However, until the end of the Middle Ages, it was not unknown for the laity to join in the singing of theLittle Office of Our Lady, which was a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours providing a fixed daily cycle of twenty-five psalms to be recited, and nine other psalms divided across Matins. The work of BishopRichard Challonerin providing devotional materials in English meant that many of the psalms were familiar to English-speaking Catholics from the eighteenth century onwards. Challoner translated the entirety of the Lady Office into English, as well as Sunday Vespers and daily Compline. He also provided other individual Psalms such as 129/130 for prayer in his devotional books. Challoner is also noted for revising theDouay-Rheims Bible, and the translations he used in his devotional books are taken from this work. Until theSecond Vatican Councilthe Psalms were either recited on a one-week or, less commonly (as in the case ofAmbrosian rite), two-week cycle. Different one-week schemata were employed: most secular clergy followed the Roman distribution, while Monastic Houses almost universally followed that ofSt Benedict, with only a few congregations (such as theBenedictinesof St Maur) following individualistic arrangements. TheBreviaryintroduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four-week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one-week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. Official approval was also given to other arrangements (see"Short" Breviaries in the 20th and early 21st century Americafor an in-progress study) by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one-week or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of theTrappists(see for examplethe Divine Office schedule at New Melleray Abbey). TheGeneral Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms: directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm); antiphonally(two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and responsorially(the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse). Of these three the antiphonal mode is the most widely followed. Over the centuries, the use of complete Psalms in theliturgydeclined. After theSecond Vatican Council(which also permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy), longer psalm texts were reintroduced into the Mass, during the readings. Therevisionof theRoman Missalafter theSecond Vatican Councilreintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called theResponsorial Psalm,is usually sung or recited responsorially, although theGeneral Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation. Protestant usage[edit] Psalm 1 in a form of theSternhold and Hopkinsversion widespread in Anglican usage before the English Civil War (1628 printing). It was from this version that the armies sang before going into battle. Following theProtestant Reformation,versified translationsof many of the Psalms were set ashymns. These were particularly popular in theCalvinisttradition, where in the past they were typically sungto the exclusion of hymns.Calvinhimself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage, but the completedPsaltereventually used in church services consisted exclusively of translations byClément MarotandThéodore de Bèze, on melodies by a number of composers, includingLouis Bourgeoisand a certain Maistre Pierre.Martin Luther'sA Mighty Fortress Is Our Godis based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were theScottish Psalterand the paraphrases byIsaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, th Psalm Book(1640). By the 20th century, they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services. However, the Psalms are popular for private devotion among many Protestants and still used in many churches for traditional worship.[47]There exists in some circles a custom of reading one Psalm and one chapter ofProverbsa day, corresponding to the day of the month. Metrical Psalms are still very popular among manyReformed Churches. Anglican usage[edit] Anglican chantis a method of singing prose versions of the Psalms. In the early 17th century, when the King James Bible was introduced, the metrical arrangements by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins were also popular and were provided with printed tunes. This version and theNew Version of the Psalms of Davidby Tate and Brady produced in the late seventeenth century (see article onMetrical Psalter) remained the normal congregational way of singing psalms in the Church of England until well into the nineteenth century. In Great Britain, the Coverdale psalter still lies at the heart of daily worship inCathedralsand manyparish churches. The newCommon Worshipservice book has a companion psalter in modern English. The version of the Psalter in the AmericanBook of Common Prayerprior to the 1979 edition is a The Psalter in the American Book of Common Prayer of 1979 is a new translation, with some attempt to keep the rhythms of the Coverdale Psalter. Psalms in the Rastafari movement[edit] The Psalms are one of the most popular parts of the Bible among followers of theRastafari movement.[48]Rasta singerPrince Far Ireleased an atmospheric spoken version of the psalms,Psalms for I, set to aroots reggaebackdrop fromThe Aggrovators.TheBook of orתהילים,Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply asPsalmsor "the Psalms", is the first book of theKetuvim("Writings"), the third section of theHebrew Bible, and a book of theChristianOld Testament.[1]The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοίpsalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music."[2]The book is ananthologyof individualpsalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches.[3][4]Many of the psalms are linked to the name ofKing David, although his authorship is not accepted by some modernBible scholars.[4] Contents[hide] 1 Structure 1.1 Benedictions 1.2 Superscriptions and attributions 1.3 Numbering 1.4 Additional psalms 2 Summary 3 Composition 3.1 Origins 3.2 King David and the Psalms 3.3 Poetic characteristics 3.4 Editorial Agenda 4 The ancient music of the Psalms 5 Themes 6 Later interpretation and influence 6.1 Overview 6.2 Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual 6.3 The Psalms in Christian worship 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Christianity 6.5 Oriental Christianity 6.6 Roman Catholic usage 6.7 Protestant usage 6.8 Anglican usage 6.9 Psalms in the Rastafari movement 6.10 Psalms in Islam 7 Psalms set to music 7.1 Multiple psalms as a single composition 7.2 Individual psalm settings 7.3 Bach 7.4 Psalm verses 7.5 Contemporary popular music 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links 11.1 Translations 11.2 Commentary and others Structure[edit] For theOrthodox Christiandivision into twentykathismata, seebelow. An 1880Baxter processillustration ofPsalm 23, from theReligious Tract Society's magazineThe Sunday at Home. Benedictions[edit] The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology (i.e., abenediction) – these divisions were probably introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of theTorah: Book 1 (Psalms 1–41) Book 2 (Psalms 42–72) Book 3 (Psalms 73–89) Book 4 (Psalms 90–106) Book 5 (Psalms 107–150)[5] Superscriptions and attributions[edit] Many psalms (116 of the 150) have ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster," including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies." Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song," or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm ("On the dedication of the temple," "For the memorial offering," etc.). Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common (73 psalms) beingof David, and thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life.[6]Others named include Moses (1), Asaph (12), the Sons of Korah (11) and Solomon (2). A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship,[7]but it could also mean "to David" or "for David".[8] Numbering[edit] Hebrew numbering (Masoretic) Greek numbering (Septuagint orVulgate) 1–8 1–8 9–10 9 11–113 10–112 114–115 113 116 114–115 117–146 116–145 147 146–147 148–150 148–150 Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation "Ps." Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew (Masoretic) and Greek (Septuagint) use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: follow the Greek numbering Catholic modern translations often use the Hebrew numbering (noting the Greek number) Eastern Orthodoxtranslations use the Greek numbering (noting the Hebrew number) For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew numbering is used, unless otherwise noted. The variance in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists. It is admitted by all that Pss. 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps. 144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15.[9]Pss. 42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. 42:6, 12; 43:5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. 146 and Ps. 147. Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss. 1, 2, 3, 4; 6 + 13; 9 + 10; 19, 20, 21; 56 + 57; 69 + 70; 114 + 115; 148, 149, 150.[10]A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. 14 + 70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. 14; the two antistrophes are Ps. 70.[11]It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps. 14 = 53, Ps. 70 = 40:14–18. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps. 108:2–6 = Ps. 57:8–12; Ps. 108:7–14 = Ps. 60:7–14; Ps. 71:1–3 = Ps. 31:2–4. This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes. Additional psalms[edit] TheSeptuagintbible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes aPsalm 151; a Hebrew version of this was found in thePsalms Scrollof theDead Sea Scrolls. Some versions of thePeshitta(the bible used in Syriac churches in the Middle East) includePsalms 152–155. There are also thePsalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely originally written in Hebrew, but surviving only in Greek andSyriactranslation. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set. Summary[edit] Hermann Gunkel's pioneering form-critical work on the psalms sought to provide a new and meaningful context in which to interpret individual psalms – not by looking at their literary context within the Psalter (which he did not see as significant), but by bringing together psalms of the samegenre(Gattung) from throughout the Psalter. Gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types: Hymns, songs of praise for God's work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, and conclude with a repetition of the call. Two sub-categories are "enthronement psalms," celebrating the enthronement ofYahwehas king, and Zion psalms, glorifying MountZion, God's dwelling-place in Jerusalem.[12]Gunkel also described a special subset of "eschatological hymns"[13]which includes themes of future restoration (Psalm 126) or of judgment (Psalm 82).[14] Communal laments, in which the nation laments some communal disaster.[15]Both communal and individual laments typically but not always include the following elements: 1) address to God, 2) description of suffering, 3) cursing of the party responsible for suffering, 4) protestation of innocence or admission of guilt, 5) petition for divine assistance, 6) faith in God's receipt of prayer, 7) anticipation of divine response, and 8) a song of thanksgiving.[16][17]In general, the difference between the individual and communal subtypes can be distinguished by the use of the singular "I" or the plural "we". However, the "I" could also be characterizing an individual's personal experience that was reflective of the entire community.[18] Royal Psalms, dealing with such matters as the king's coronation, marriage and battles.[15]None of them mentions any specific king by name, and their origin and use remain obscure;[19]several psalms, especially ps.93–99, concern the kingship of God, and might relate to an annual ceremony in which Yahweh would be ritually reinstated as king.[20] Individual lamentslamenting the fate of the particular individual who utters them. They are by far the most common type of psalm. They typically open with an invocation of Yahweh, followed by the lament itself and pleas for help, and often ending with an expression of confidence. A subset is the psalm of confidence, in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will deliver him from evils and enemies.[15] Individual thanksgiving psalms, the obverse of individual laments, in which the psalmist thanks God for deliverance from personal distress.[15] In addition to these five major genres, Gunkel also recognised a number of minor psalm-types, including: communal thanksgiving psalms, in which the whole nation thanks God for deliverance; wisdom psalms, reflecting the Old Testamentwisdom literature; pilgrimage psalms, sung by pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem; entrance and prophetic liturgies; and a group of mixed psalms which could not be assigned to any category.[21] Composition[edit] Scroll of the Psalms Origins[edit] The composition of the psalms spans at least five centuries, fromPsalm 29, probably adapted from an entire Canaanite hymn to Baal which was transposed into a hymn to Yahweh,[22]to others which are clearly from the post-Exilic period. The majority originated in the southernkingdom of Judahand were associated with the Temple in Jerusalem, where they probably functioned aslibrettoduring the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear, although there are indications in some of them: "Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar," suggests a connection with sacrifices, and "Let my prayer be counted as incense" suggests a connection with the offering of incense.[3] King David and the Psalms[edit] Seventy-three of the 150 psalms in the Bible are attributed to KingDavid. One of theDead Sea Scrolls(11QPsa) attributes 3600 tehilim (songs of praise) plus other compositions to him.[23]Nevertheless, there is no hard evidence for Davidic authorship of any of them.[2]"Davidic authorship is not accepted as historical fact by modern scholars," noteAdele BerlinandMarc Zvi Brettlerin theJewish Study Bible, but is seen rather as the way in which the ancients "confirm[ed] the divine inspiration and authority" of the writings by linking them to well-known biblical figures.[4] Nine Psalms[citation needed]are attributed to David elsewhere in the Bible: 1 Chronicles 16:7-36contains parts of Psalms 96, 105 and 106, and this passage is stated to be by David. Acts 4:25states that Psalm 2 is by David. Acts 2:25-28states that Psalm 16 is by David. Romans 4:6-8contains parts of Psalms 32 and this passage is stated to be by David. Romans 11:9contains part of Psalm 69, the apostle Paul stated that it is by David Hebrews 4:7states that Psalm 95 is by David. Matthew 24:43-44,Mark 12:36andLuke 20:42Jesus attributes part of Psalm 110 to David. Acts 2:34-35also states that Psalm 110 is by David. Poetic characteristics[edit] Thebiblical poetryof Psalms usesparallelismas its primary poetic device. Parallelism is a kind ofrhyme, in which an idea is developed by the use of repetition, synonyms, or opposites.[24]Synonymous parallelism involves two lines expressing essentially the same idea. An example of synonymous parallelism: The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? (Psalm 27:1) Two lines expressing opposites is known asantithetic parallelism. An example of antithetic parallelism: The LORD watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish. (Psalm 1:6) Editorial Agenda[edit] Many scholars believe the individual Psalms were redacted into a single collection in second-temple times. It had long been recognized that the collection bore the imprint of an underlying message or 'meta-narrative', but that this message remained concealed, asAugustinesaid, 'The sequence of the Psalms seems to me to contain the secret of a mighty mystery, but its meaning has not been revealed to me.' (Enarr.on Ps. 150.1) Others pointed out the presence of concatenation, that is, adjacent Psalms sharing similar words and themes. In time, this approach developed into recognizing overarching themes shared by whole groups of psalms.[25] In 1985,Gerald H. Wilson'sThe Editing of the Hebrew Psalterproposed, by parallel with other ancient eastern hymn collections, that psalms at the beginning and end (or "seams") of the five books of Psalms have thematic significance, corresponding in particular with the placement of the royal psalms. He pointed out that there was a progression of ideas, from adversity, through the crux of the collection in the apparent failure of the covenant in Psalm 89, leading to a concert of praise at the end. He concluded that the collection was redacted to be a retrospective of the failure of the Davidic covenant, exhorting Israel to trust in God alone in a non-messianic future.[26]Walter Brueggemannsuggested that the underlying editorial purpose was oriented rather towards wisdom or sapiential concerns, addressing the issues of how to live the life of faith. Psalm 1 calls the reader to a life of obedience; Psalm 73 (Brueggemann's crux psalm) faces the crisis when divine faithfulness is in doubt; Psalm 150 represents faith's triumph, when God is praised not for his rewards, but for his being.[27]In 1997, David. C. Mitchell'sThe Message of the Psaltertook a quite different line. Building on the work of Wilson and others,[28]Mitchell proposed that the Psalter embodies an eschatological timetable like that of Zechariah 9–14.[29]This programme includes the gathering of exiled Israel by a bridegroom-king; his establishment of a kingdom; his violent death; Israel scattered in the wilderness, regathered and again imperilled, then rescued by a king from the heavens, who establishes his kingdom from Zion, brings peace and prosperity to the earth and receives the homage of the nations. Such a timetable is confirmed by parallels from the Baal Cycle to Roman-periodmidrashim. These three views—Wilson's non-messianic retrospective of the Davidic covenant, Brueggemann's sapiential instruction, and Mitchell's eschatologico-messianic programme—all have their followers, although the sapiential agenda has been somewhat eclipsed by the other two. Shortly before his untimely death in 2005, Wilson modified his position to allow for the existence of messianic prophecy within the Psalms' redactional agenda.[30]Mitchell's position remains largely unchanged, although he now sees the issue as identifying when the historical beginning of the Psalms turns to eschatology.[31] The ancient music of the Psalms[edit] The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing (e.g. Pss. 33:1-3; 92:1-3; 96:1-3; 98:1; 101:1; 150). Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played (Pss. 4, 5, 6, 8, 67). Some refer to singing at thesheminitor octave (Pss. 6, 12). And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, likemut la-ben(Death of the son; Ps. 9),ayelet ha-shachar(hind of the dawn; Ps. 22);shoshanim(Lilies; Ps. 45); oralamoth(Maidens?; Ps. 46). Despite the frequently-heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it still exist. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in thetonus peregrinusmelody to Psalm 114.[32]Cantillation signs, to record the melody sung, were in use since ancient times; evidence of them can be found in the manuscripts of the oldest extant copies of Psalms in theDead Sea Scrollsand are even more extensive in theMasoretic text, which dates to theEarly Middle Agesand whose Tiberian scribes claimed to be basing their work on temple-period signs. (See Moshe ben Asher's 'Song of the Vine' colophon to the Codex Cairensis). However, any knowledge of how to read these signs was lost in ancient times, and modernBible translationsdo not include anymusical notation.[33] Several attempts have been made to decode the Masoretic cantillation, but the most successful is that ofSuzanne Haïk-Vantoura(1928–2000) in the last quarter of the 20th century.[34]Although some have dismissed Haïk-Vantoura's system, Mitchell has repeatedly defended it, showing that, when applied to the Masoretic cantillation of Psalm 114, it produces a melody recognizable as thetonus peregrinusof church and synagogue.[35]Mitchell includes musical transcriptions of the temple psalmody of Psalms 120–134 in his commentary on the Songs of Ascents. Themes[edit] Most individual psalms involve the praise of God – for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God, and God in turn will hear their prayers and respond. Worst of all is when God "hides his face" and refuses to respond, because this puts in question theefficacy of prayerwhich is the underlying assumption of the Book of Psalms.[36] Some psalms are called "maskil" (maschil) because in addition they impart wisdom. Most notable of these is Psalm 142 which is sometimes called the "Maskil of David", others include Psalm 32 and Psalm 78.[37]The term derives frommaskilmeaning "enlightened" or "wise". Later interpretation and influence[edit] David Playing the HarpbyJan de Bray, 1670. Hebrewtext of Psalm 1:1-2 AJewishman reads Psalms at theWestern Wall Overview[edit] Individual psalms were originally hymns, to be used on various occasions and at various sacred sites; later, some were anthologised, and might have been understood within the various anthologies (e.g., ps.123 as one of the Psalms of Ascent); finally, individual psalms might be understood within the Psalter as a whole, either narrating the life of David or providing instruction like the Torah. In later Jewish and Christian tradition, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feeling.[38] Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual[edit] Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship: Some bear a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song. Fifty-eight Psalms bear the Greek ψαλμόςpsalmos, a psalm), a lyricode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. Psalm 145, and many others, have the Greekhymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.Tehillahis also the singular of the name of the book in Hebrew,Tehillim. Six Psalms (16, 56–60) have the titlemichtam(מכתם; "gold").[39]Rashisuggests that "michtam" refers to an item that a person carries with him at all times, hence, these Psalms contain concepts or ideas that are pertinent at every stage and setting throughout life, deemed vital as part of day-to-day spiritual awareness.[40] Psalm 7(along withHabakkukch. 3)[41]bears the There are three interpretations:[42](a) According to Rashi and others, this term stems from the rootshegaga,meaning "mistake" – David committed some sin and is singing in the form of a prayer to redeem himself from it; (b) shigayon was a type of musical instrument; (c)Ibn Ezraconsiders the word to mean 'longing,' as in the verse tamid." Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Many complete Psalms and verses from Psalms appear in themorning services("Shacharit"). Thepesukei dezimracomponent incorporates Psalms 30, 100 and 145 – 150. Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei", which is really the first word of 2 verses appended to the beginning of the Psalm), is read three times every day: once in shacharit as part ofpesukei dezimrah, as mentioned, once, along with Psalm 20, as part of the morning'sconcluding prayers, and once at the start of theAfternoon service. OnFestival daysand Sabbaths, instead of concluding the morning service, it precedes theMussafservice. Psalms 95–99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service. Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" –Shir shel yom– is read after themorning serviceeach day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in theMishnah(the initial codification of the Jewishoral tradition) in the tractate "Tamid". According to the Talmud, these daily Psalms were originally recited on that day of the week by the Levites in the Temple in Jerusalem. FromRosh Rabbah, Psalm 27 is recited twice daily following the morning and evening services. There is aMinhag(custom) to say Psalm 30 each morning ofChanukkahafter Shacharit: some say this "instead" of the regular "Psalm for the Day", others say this additionally. When aJewdies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlelight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but in contemporary practice, this service is provided by an employee of the funeral home orChevra kadisha. Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. Each week, some also say a Psalm connected to that week's events or theTorah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notablyLubavitch, and otherChasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning service, on theSabbath precedingthecalculated appearance of the new moon. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a vehicle for gaining God's favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as poverty, disease, or physical danger; in many synagogues, Psalms are recited after services for the security of the State of Israel. Note thatSefer ha-Chinuch[44]states that this practice is designed not to achieve favor, as such, but rather to inculcate belief inDivine Providenceinto one's consciousness – as consistent withMaimonides'general viewon Providence. (Relatedly, the Hebrew verb for prayer –hitpalalהתפלל – is in fact thereflexive formofpalalפלל, to judge. Thus, "to pray" conveys the notion of "judging oneself": ultimately, the purpose of prayer –tefilahתפלה – is to transform ourselves; for the relationship between prayer and psalms – "tehillahandtefillah" – seeS. R. Hirsch,Horeb§620. SeealsounderJewish services.) The Psalms in Christian worship[edit] Part ofa serieson Christianity JesusChrist [show] BibleFoundations [show] Theology[show] HistoryTradition [show] Related topics[show] DenominationsGroups [show] Christianity portal vte St. Florian's psalter, 14th or 15th century, Old Polish Translation Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum). New Testamentreferences show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. TheEastern have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate forbishopwould be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically[45]during their time as monks. Paul the Apostlequotes psalms (specifically Psalms14and53, which are nearly identical) as the basis for his theory oforiginal sin, and includes the scripture in theEpistle to the Romans, chapter 3. Several conservative Protestant denominations sing only the Psalms (some churches also sing the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; examples are theReformed Presbyterian Church of North America, thePresbyterian Reformed Church (North America)and theFree Church of Scotland (Continuing). Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers[citation needed][peacockterm]. Psalm 22is of particular importance during the season ofLentas a Psalm of continued faith during severe testing. Psalm 23,The LORD is My Shepherd, offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for churchfuneralservices, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; Psalm 51,Have mercy on me O God, called theMisererefrom the first word in its Latin version, is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy[citation needed], in bothDivine LiturgyandHours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings; Psalm 82is found in theBook of Common Prayeras a funeral recitation. Psalm 103,Bless the Lord, O my soul, is one of the best-known[citation needed]prayers of praise. The psalm was adapted for the musicalGodspell; Psalm 137,By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept, is a moody meditation upon living inslavery, and has been used in at least onespiritual[citation needed], as well as one Orthodox church often uses this hymn duringLent. This psalm was adapted for the songOn the Willowsin the musicalGodspell. New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called aPsalter. Eastern Orthodox Christianity[edit] See also:Kathisma Orthodox Christiansand Greek-Catholics (Eastern Catholicswho follow theByzantine rite), have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. The official version of thePsalterused by the Orthodox Church is theSeptuagint. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20kathismata(Greek: καθίσματα; Slavonic: каѳисмы,kafismy; lit. "sittings") and eachkathisma(Greek: κάθισμα; Slavonic: каѳисма,kafisma) is further subdivided into threestases(Greek: στάσεις,staseislit. "standings", sing. στάσις,stasis), so-called because the faithful stand at the end of eachstasisfor theGlory to the Father.... AtVespersandMatins, differentkathismataare read at different times of theliturgical yearand on different days of the week, according to the Church's calendar, so that all 150 psalms (20kathismata) are read in the course of a week. DuringGreat Lent, the number ofkathismatais increased so that the entire Psalter is read twice a week. In the twentieth century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks. Aside fromkathismareadings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including theservices of the Hoursand theDivine Liturgy. In particular, the penitentialPsalm 50is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used asProkimena(introductions to Scriptural readings) andStichera. The bulk ofVesperswould still be composed of Psalms even if the kathisma were to be disregarded;Psalm 119, "The Psalm of theLaw", is the centerpiece ofMatinson Saturdays, some Sundays, and theFuneralservice. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition. Oriental Christianity[edit] Several branches ofOriental Orthodoxand thoseEastern Catholicswho follow one of the Oriental Rites will chant the entire Psalter during the course of a day during theDaily Office. This practice continues to be a requirement ofmonasticsin the Oriental churches. Roman Catholic usage[edit] The Psalms have always been an important part ofCatholicliturgy. TheLiturgy of the Hoursis centered on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixedmelodic formulasknown aspsalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge ofLatin(the language of theRoman Rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. However, until the end of the Middle Ages, it was not unknown for the laity to join in the singing of theLittle Office of Our Lady, which was a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours providing a fixed daily cycle of twenty-five psalms to be recited, and nine other psalms divided across Matins. The work of BishopRichard Challonerin providing devotional materials in English meant that many of the psalms were familiar to English-speaking Catholics from the eighteenth century onwards. Challoner translated the entirety of the Lady Office into English, as well as Sunday Vespers and daily Compline. He also provided other individual Psalms such as 129/130 for prayer in his devotional books. Challoner is also noted for revising theDouay-Rheims Bible, and the translations he used in his devotional books are taken from this work. Until theSecond Vatican Councilthe Psalms were either recited on a one-week or, less commonly (as in the case ofAmbrosian rite), two-week cycle. Different one-week schemata were employed: most secular clergy followed the Roman distribution, while Monastic Houses almost universally followed that ofSt Benedict, with only a few congregations (such as theBenedictinesof St Maur) following individualistic arrangements. TheBreviaryintroduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four-week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one-week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. Official approval was also given to other arrangements (see"Short" Breviaries in the 20th and early 21st century Americafor an in-progress study) by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one-week or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of theTrappists(see for examplethe Divine Office schedule at New Melleray Abbey). TheGeneral Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms: directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm); antiphonally(two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and responsorially(the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse). Of these three the antiphonal mode is the most widely followed. Over the centuries, the use of complete Psalms in theliturgydeclined. After theSecond Vatican Council(which also permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy), longer psalm texts were reintroduced into the Mass, during the readings. Therevisionof theRoman Missalafter theSecond Vatican Councilreintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called theResponsorial Psalm,is usually sung or recited responsorially, although theGeneral Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation. Protestant usage[edit] Psalm 1 in a form of theSternhold and Hopkinsversion widespread in Anglican usage before the English Civil War (1628 printing). It was from this version that the armies sang before going into battle. Following theProtestant Reformation,versified translationsof many of the Psalms were set ashymns. These were particularly popular in theCalvinisttradition, where in the past they were typically sungto the exclusion of hymns.Calvinhimself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage, but the completedPsaltereventually used in church services consisted exclusively of translations byClément MarotandThéodore de Bèze, on melodies by a number of composers, includingLouis Bourgeoisand a certain Maistre Pierre.Martin Luther'sA Mighty Fortress Is Our Godis based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were theScottish Psalterand the paraphrases byIsaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, th Psalm Book(1640). By the 20th century, they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services. However, the Psalms are popular for private devotion among many Protestants and still used in many churches for traditional worship.[47]There exists in some circles a custom of reading one Psalm and one chapter ofProverbsa day, corresponding to the day of the month. Metrical Psalms are still very popular among manyReformed Churches. Anglican usage[edit] Anglican chantis a method of singing prose versions of the Psalms. In the early 17th century, when the King James Bible was introduced, the metrical arrangements by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins were also popular and were provided with printed tunes. This version and theNew Version of the Psalms of Davidby Tate and Brady produced in the late seventeenth century (see article onMetrical Psalter) remained the normal congregational way of singing psalms in the Church of England until well into the nineteenth century. In Great Britain, the Coverdale psalter still lies at the heart of daily worship inCathedralsand manyparish churches. The newCommon Worshipservice book has a companion psalter in modern English. The version of the Psalter in the AmericanBook of Common Prayerprior to the 1979 edition is a The Psalter in the American Book of Common Prayer of 1979 is a new translation, with some attempt to keep the rhythms of the Coverdale Psalter. Psalms in the Rastafari movement[edit] The Psalms are one of the most popular parts of the Bible among followers of theRastafari movement.[48]Rasta singerPrince Far Ireleased an atmospheric spoken version of the psalms,Psalms for I, set to aroots reggaebackdrop fromThe Aggrovators.TheBook of orתהילים,Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply asPsalmsor "the Psalms", is the first book of theKetuvim("Writings"), the third section of theHebrew Bible, and a book of theChristianOld Testament.[1]The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοίpsalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music."[2]The book is ananthologyof individualpsalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches.[3][4]Many of the psalms are linked to the name ofKing David, although his authorship is not accepted by some modernBible scholars.[4] Contents[hide] 1 Structure 1.1 Benedictions 1.2 Superscriptions and attributions 1.3 Numbering 1.4 Additional psalms 2 Summary 3 Composition 3.1 Origins 3.2 King David and the Psalms 3.3 Poetic characteristics 3.4 Editorial Agenda 4 The ancient music of the Psalms 5 Themes 6 Later interpretation and influence 6.1 Overview 6.2 Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual 6.3 The Psalms in Christian worship 6.4 Eastern Orthodox Christianity 6.5 Oriental Christianity 6.6 Roman Catholic usage 6.7 Protestant usage 6.8 Anglican usage 6.9 Psalms in the Rastafari movement 6.10 Psalms in Islam 7 Psalms set to music 7.1 Multiple psalms as a single composition 7.2 Individual psalm settings 7.3 Bach 7.4 Psalm verses 7.5 Contemporary popular music 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links 11.1 Translations 11.2 Commentary and others Structure[edit] For theOrthodox Christiandivision into twentykathismata, seebelow. An 1880Baxter processillustration ofPsalm 23, from theReligious Tract Society's magazineThe Sunday at Home. Benedictions[edit] The Book of Psalms is divided into five sections, each closing with a doxology (i.e., abenediction) – these divisions were probably introduced by the final editors to imitate the five-fold division of theTorah: Book 1 (Psalms 1–41) Book 2 (Psalms 42–72) Book 3 (Psalms 73–89) Book 4 (Psalms 90–106) Book 5 (Psalms 107–150)[5] Superscriptions and attributions[edit] Many psalms (116 of the 150) have ranging from lengthy comments to a single word. Over a third appear to be musical directions, addressed to the "leader" or "choirmaster," including such statements as "with stringed instruments" and "according to lilies." Others appear to be references to types of musical composition, such as "A psalm" and "Song," or directions regarding the occasion for using the psalm ("On the dedication of the temple," "For the memorial offering," etc.). Many superscriptions carry the names of individuals, the most common (73 psalms) beingof David, and thirteen of these relate explicitly to incidents in the king's life.[6]Others named include Moses (1), Asaph (12), the Sons of Korah (11) and Solomon (2). A natural way of understanding these attributions is as a claim to authorship,[7]but it could also mean "to David" or "for David".[8] Numbering[edit] Hebrew numbering (Masoretic) Greek numbering (Septuagint orVulgate) 1–8 1–8 9–10 9 11–113 10–112 114–115 113 116 114–115 117–146 116–145 147 146–147 148–150 148–150 Psalms are usually identified by a sequence number, often preceded by the abbreviation "Ps." Numbering of the Psalms differs—mostly by one digit, see table—between the Hebrew (Masoretic) and Greek (Septuagint) use the Hebrew numbering, but other Christian traditions vary: follow the Greek numbering Catholic modern translations often use the Hebrew numbering (noting the Greek number) Eastern Orthodoxtranslations use the Greek numbering (noting the Hebrew number) For the remainder of this article, the Hebrew numbering is used, unless otherwise noted. The variance in this numeration is likely enough due to a gradual neglect of the original poetic form of the Psalms; such neglect was occasioned by liturgical uses and carelessness of copyists. It is admitted by all that Pss. 9 and 10 were originally a single acrostic poem; they have been wrongly separated by Massorah, rightly united by the Septuagint and Vulgate. On the other hand, Ps. 144 is made up of two songs — verses 1–11 and 12–15.[9]Pss. 42 and 43 are shown by identity of subject (yearning for the house of Jahweh), of metrical structure and of refrain (cf. Heb. Ps. 42:6, 12; 43:5), to be three strophes of one and the same poem. The Hebrew text is correct in counting as one Ps. 146 and Ps. 147. Later liturgical usage would seem to have split up these and not a few other psalms. Zenner combines into what he deems were the original choral odes: Pss. 1, 2, 3, 4; 6 + 13; 9 + 10; 19, 20, 21; 56 + 57; 69 + 70; 114 + 115; 148, 149, 150.[10]A choral ode would seem to have been the original form of Pss. 14 + 70. The two strophes and the epode are Ps. 14; the two antistrophes are Ps. 70.[11]It is noteworthy that, on the breaking up of the original ode, each portion crept twice into the Psalter: Ps. 14 = 53, Ps. 70 = 40:14–18. Other such duplicated psalms are Ps. 108:2–6 = Ps. 57:8–12; Ps. 108:7–14 = Ps. 60:7–14; Ps. 71:1–3 = Ps. 31:2–4. This loss of the original form of some of the psalms is allowed by the Biblical Commission (1 May 1910) to have been due to liturgical uses, neglect of copyists, or other causes. Additional psalms[edit] TheSeptuagintbible, present in Eastern Orthodox churches, includes aPsalm 151; a Hebrew version of this was found in thePsalms Scrollof theDead Sea Scrolls. Some versions of thePeshitta(the bible used in Syriac churches in the Middle East) includePsalms 152–155. There are also thePsalms of Solomon, which are a further 18 psalms of Jewish origin, likely originally written in Hebrew, but surviving only in Greek andSyriactranslation. These and other indications suggest that the current Western Christian and Jewish collection of 150 psalms were selected from a wider set. Summary[edit] Hermann Gunkel's pioneering form-critical work on the psalms sought to provide a new and meaningful context in which to interpret individual psalms – not by looking at their literary context within the Psalter (which he did not see as significant), but by bringing together psalms of the samegenre(Gattung) from throughout the Psalter. Gunkel divided the psalms into five primary types: Hymns, songs of praise for God's work in creation or in history. They typically open with a call to praise, describe the motivation for praise, and conclude with a repetition of the call. Two sub-categories are "enthronement psalms," celebrating the enthronement ofYahwehas king, and Zion psalms, glorifying MountZion, God's dwelling-place in Jerusalem.[12]Gunkel also described a special subset of "eschatological hymns"[13]which includes themes of future restoration (Psalm 126) or of judgment (Psalm 82).[14] Communal laments, in which the nation laments some communal disaster.[15]Both communal and individual laments typically but not always include the following elements: 1) address to God, 2) description of suffering, 3) cursing of the party responsible for suffering, 4) protestation of innocence or admission of guilt, 5) petition for divine assistance, 6) faith in God's receipt of prayer, 7) anticipation of divine response, and 8) a song of thanksgiving.[16][17]In general, the difference between the individual and communal subtypes can be distinguished by the use of the singular "I" or the plural "we". However, the "I" could also be characterizing an individual's personal experience that was reflective of the entire community.[18] Royal Psalms, dealing with such matters as the king's coronation, marriage and battles.[15]None of them mentions any specific king by name, and their origin and use remain obscure;[19]several psalms, especially ps.93–99, concern the kingship of God, and might relate to an annual ceremony in which Yahweh would be ritually reinstated as king.[20] Individual lamentslamenting the fate of the particular individual who utters them. They are by far the most common type of psalm. They typically open with an invocation of Yahweh, followed by the lament itself and pleas for help, and often ending with an expression of confidence. A subset is the psalm of confidence, in which the psalmist expresses confidence that God will deliver him from evils and enemies.[15] Individual thanksgiving psalms, the obverse of individual laments, in which the psalmist thanks God for deliverance from personal distress.[15] In addition to these five major genres, Gunkel also recognised a number of minor psalm-types, including: communal thanksgiving psalms, in which the whole nation thanks God for deliverance; wisdom psalms, reflecting the Old Testamentwisdom literature; pilgrimage psalms, sung by pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem; entrance and prophetic liturgies; and a group of mixed psalms which could not be assigned to any category.[21] Composition[edit] Scroll of the Psalms Origins[edit] The composition of the psalms spans at least five centuries, fromPsalm 29, probably adapted from an entire Canaanite hymn to Baal which was transposed into a hymn to Yahweh,[22]to others which are clearly from the post-Exilic period. The majority originated in the southernkingdom of Judahand were associated with the Temple in Jerusalem, where they probably functioned aslibrettoduring the Temple worship. Exactly how they did this is unclear, although there are indications in some of them: "Bind the festal procession with branches, up to the horns of the altar," suggests a connection with sacrifices, and "Let my prayer be counted as incense" suggests a connection with the offering of incense.[3] King David and the Psalms[edit] Seventy-three of the 150 psalms in the Bible are attributed to KingDavid. One of theDead Sea Scrolls(11QPsa) attributes 3600 tehilim (songs of praise) plus other compositions to him.[23]Nevertheless, there is no hard evidence for Davidic authorship of any of them.[2]"Davidic authorship is not accepted as historical fact by modern scholars," noteAdele BerlinandMarc Zvi Brettlerin theJewish Study Bible, but is seen rather as the way in which the ancients "confirm[ed] the divine inspiration and authority" of the writings by linking them to well-known biblical figures.[4] Nine Psalms[citation needed]are attributed to David elsewhere in the Bible: 1 Chronicles 16:7-36contains parts of Psalms 96, 105 and 106, and this passage is stated to be by David. Acts 4:25states that Psalm 2 is by David. Acts 2:25-28states that Psalm 16 is by David. Romans 4:6-8contains parts of Psalms 32 and this passage is stated to be by David. Romans 11:9contains part of Psalm 69, the apostle Paul stated that it is by David Hebrews 4:7states that Psalm 95 is by David. Matthew 24:43-44,Mark 12:36andLuke 20:42Jesus attributes part of Psalm 110 to David. Acts 2:34-35also states that Psalm 110 is by David. Poetic characteristics[edit] Thebiblical poetryof Psalms usesparallelismas its primary poetic device. Parallelism is a kind ofrhyme, in which an idea is developed by the use of repetition, synonyms, or opposites.[24]Synonymous parallelism involves two lines expressing essentially the same idea. An example of synonymous parallelism: The LORD is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? The LORD is the stronghold of my life; of whom shall I be afraid? (Psalm 27:1) Two lines expressing opposites is known asantithetic parallelism. An example of antithetic parallelism: The LORD watches over the way of the righteous, but the way of the wicked will perish. (Psalm 1:6) Editorial Agenda[edit] Many scholars believe the individual Psalms were redacted into a single collection in second-temple times. It had long been recognized that the collection bore the imprint of an underlying message or 'meta-narrative', but that this message remained concealed, asAugustinesaid, 'The sequence of the Psalms seems to me to contain the secret of a mighty mystery, but its meaning has not been revealed to me.' (Enarr.on Ps. 150.1) Others pointed out the presence of concatenation, that is, adjacent Psalms sharing similar words and themes. In time, this approach developed into recognizing overarching themes shared by whole groups of psalms.[25] In 1985,Gerald H. Wilson'sThe Editing of the Hebrew Psalterproposed, by parallel with other ancient eastern hymn collections, that psalms at the beginning and end (or "seams") of the five books of Psalms have thematic significance, corresponding in particular with the placement of the royal psalms. He pointed out that there was a progression of ideas, from adversity, through the crux of the collection in the apparent failure of the covenant in Psalm 89, leading to a concert of praise at the end. He concluded that the collection was redacted to be a retrospective of the failure of the Davidic covenant, exhorting Israel to trust in God alone in a non-messianic future.[26]Walter Brueggemannsuggested that the underlying editorial purpose was oriented rather towards wisdom or sapiential concerns, addressing the issues of how to live the life of faith. Psalm 1 calls the reader to a life of obedience; Psalm 73 (Brueggemann's crux psalm) faces the crisis when divine faithfulness is in doubt; Psalm 150 represents faith's triumph, when God is praised not for his rewards, but for his being.[27]In 1997, David. C. Mitchell'sThe Message of the Psaltertook a quite different line. Building on the work of Wilson and others,[28]Mitchell proposed that the Psalter embodies an eschatological timetable like that of Zechariah 9–14.[29]This programme includes the gathering of exiled Israel by a bridegroom-king; his establishment of a kingdom; his violent death; Israel scattered in the wilderness, regathered and again imperilled, then rescued by a king from the heavens, who establishes his kingdom from Zion, brings peace and prosperity to the earth and receives the homage of the nations. Such a timetable is confirmed by parallels from the Baal Cycle to Roman-periodmidrashim. These three views—Wilson's non-messianic retrospective of the Davidic covenant, Brueggemann's sapiential instruction, and Mitchell's eschatologico-messianic programme—all have their followers, although the sapiential agenda has been somewhat eclipsed by the other two. Shortly before his untimely death in 2005, Wilson modified his position to allow for the existence of messianic prophecy within the Psalms' redactional agenda.[30]Mitchell's position remains largely unchanged, although he now sees the issue as identifying when the historical beginning of the Psalms turns to eschatology.[31] The ancient music of the Psalms[edit] The Psalms were written not merely as poems, but as songs for singing. More than a third of the psalms are addressed to the Director of Music. Some psalms exhort the worshipper to sing (e.g. Pss. 33:1-3; 92:1-3; 96:1-3; 98:1; 101:1; 150). Some headings denote the musical instruments on which the psalm should be played (Pss. 4, 5, 6, 8, 67). Some refer to singing at thesheminitor octave (Pss. 6, 12). And others preserve the name for ancient eastern modes, likemut la-ben(Death of the son; Ps. 9),ayelet ha-shachar(hind of the dawn; Ps. 22);shoshanim(Lilies; Ps. 45); oralamoth(Maidens?; Ps. 46). Despite the frequently-heard view that their ancient music is lost, the means to reconstruct it still exist. Fragments of temple psalmody are preserved in ancient church and synagogue chant, particularly in thetonus peregrinusmelody to Psalm 114.[32]Cantillation signs, to record the melody sung, were in use since ancient times; evidence of them can be found in the manuscripts of the oldest extant copies of Psalms in theDead Sea Scrollsand are even more extensive in theMasoretic text, which dates to theEarly Middle Agesand whose Tiberian scribes claimed to be basing their work on temple-period signs. (See Moshe ben Asher's 'Song of the Vine' colophon to the Codex Cairensis). However, any knowledge of how to read these signs was lost in ancient times, and modernBible translationsdo not include anymusical notation.[33] Several attempts have been made to decode the Masoretic cantillation, but the most successful is that ofSuzanne Haïk-Vantoura(1928–2000) in the last quarter of the 20th century.[34]Although some have dismissed Haïk-Vantoura's system, Mitchell has repeatedly defended it, showing that, when applied to the Masoretic cantillation of Psalm 114, it produces a melody recognizable as thetonus peregrinusof church and synagogue.[35]Mitchell includes musical transcriptions of the temple psalmody of Psalms 120–134 in his commentary on the Songs of Ascents. Themes[edit] Most individual psalms involve the praise of God – for his power and beneficence, for his creation of the world, and for his past acts of deliverance for Israel. The psalms envision a world in which everyone and everything will praise God, and God in turn will hear their prayers and respond. Worst of all is when God "hides his face" and refuses to respond, because this puts in question theefficacy of prayerwhich is the underlying assumption of the Book of Psalms.[36] Some psalms are called "maskil" (maschil) because in addition they impart wisdom. Most notable of these is Psalm 142 which is sometimes called the "Maskil of David", others include Psalm 32 and Psalm 78.[37]The term derives frommaskilmeaning "enlightened" or "wise". Later interpretation and influence[edit] David Playing the HarpbyJan de Bray, 1670. Hebrewtext of Psalm 1:1-2 AJewishman reads Psalms at theWestern Wall Overview[edit] Individual psalms were originally hymns, to be used on various occasions and at various sacred sites; later, some were anthologised, and might have been understood within the various anthologies (e.g., ps.123 as one of the Psalms of Ascent); finally, individual psalms might be understood within the Psalter as a whole, either narrating the life of David or providing instruction like the Torah. In later Jewish and Christian tradition, the psalms have come to be used as prayers, either individual or communal, as traditional expressions of religious feeling.[38] Use of the Psalms in Jewish ritual[edit] Some of the titles given to the Psalms in their ascriptions suggest their use in worship: Some bear a song). Thirteen have this title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well as sacred song. Fifty-eight Psalms bear the Greek ψαλμόςpsalmos, a psalm), a lyricode, or a song set to music; a sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument. Psalm 145, and many others, have the Greekhymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.Tehillahis also the singular of the name of the book in Hebrew,Tehillim. Six Psalms (16, 56–60) have the titlemichtam(מכתם; "gold").[39]Rashisuggests that "michtam" refers to an item that a person carries with him at all times, hence, these Psalms contain concepts or ideas that are pertinent at every stage and setting throughout life, deemed vital as part of day-to-day spiritual awareness.[40] Psalm 7(along withHabakkukch. 3)[41]bears the There are three interpretations:[42](a) According to Rashi and others, this term stems from the rootshegaga,meaning "mistake" – David committed some sin and is singing in the form of a prayer to redeem himself from it; (b) shigayon was a type of musical instrument; (c)Ibn Ezraconsiders the word to mean 'longing,' as in the verse tamid." Psalms are used throughout traditional Jewish worship. Many complete Psalms and verses from Psalms appear in themorning services("Shacharit"). Thepesukei dezimracomponent incorporates Psalms 30, 100 and 145 – 150. Psalm 145 (commonly referred to as "Ashrei", which is really the first word of 2 verses appended to the beginning of the Psalm), is read three times every day: once in shacharit as part ofpesukei dezimrah, as mentioned, once, along with Psalm 20, as part of the morning'sconcluding prayers, and once at the start of theAfternoon service. OnFestival daysand Sabbaths, instead of concluding the morning service, it precedes theMussafservice. Psalms 95–99, 29, 92, and 93, along with some later readings, comprise the introduction ("Kabbalat Shabbat") to the Friday night service. Traditionally, a different "Psalm for the Day" –Shir shel yom– is read after themorning serviceeach day of the week (starting Sunday, Psalms: 24, 48, 82, 94, 81, 93, 92). This is described in theMishnah(the initial codification of the Jewishoral tradition) in the tractate "Tamid". According to the Talmud, these daily Psalms were originally recited on that day of the week by the Levites in the Temple in Jerusalem. FromRosh Rabbah, Psalm 27 is recited twice daily following the morning and evening services. There is aMinhag(custom) to say Psalm 30 each morning ofChanukkahafter Shacharit: some say this "instead" of the regular "Psalm for the Day", others say this additionally. When aJewdies, a watch is kept over the body and Tehillim (Psalms) are recited constantly by sun or candlelight, until the burial service. Historically, this watch would be carried out by the immediate family – usually in shifts – but in contemporary practice, this service is provided by an employee of the funeral home orChevra kadisha. Many Jews complete the Book of Psalms on a weekly or monthly basis. Each week, some also say a Psalm connected to that week's events or theTorah portion read during that week. In addition, many Jews (notablyLubavitch, and otherChasidim) read the entire Book of Psalms prior to the morning service, on theSabbath precedingthecalculated appearance of the new moon. The reading of psalms is viewed in Jewish tradition as a vehicle for gaining God's favor. They are thus often specially recited in times of trouble, such as poverty, disease, or physical danger; in many synagogues, Psalms are recited after services for the security of the State of Israel. Note thatSefer ha-Chinuch[44]states that this practice is designed not to achieve favor, as such, but rather to inculcate belief inDivine Providenceinto one's consciousness – as consistent withMaimonides'general viewon Providence. (Relatedly, the Hebrew verb for prayer –hitpalalהתפלל – is in fact thereflexive formofpalalפלל, to judge. Thus, "to pray" conveys the notion of "judging oneself": ultimately, the purpose of prayer –tefilahתפלה – is to transform ourselves; for the relationship between prayer and psalms – "tehillahandtefillah" – seeS. R. Hirsch,Horeb§620. SeealsounderJewish services.) The Psalms in Christian worship[edit] Part ofa serieson Christianity JesusChrist [show] BibleFoundations [show] Theology[show] HistoryTradition [show] Related topics[show] DenominationsGroups [show] Christianity portal vte St. Florian's psalter, 14th or 15th century, Old Polish Translation Children singing and playing music, illustration of Psalm 150 (Laudate Dominum). New Testamentreferences show that the earliest Christians used the Psalms in worship, and the Psalms have remained an important part of worship in most Christian Churches. TheEastern have always made systematic use of the Psalms, with a cycle for the recitation of all or most of them over the course of one or more weeks. In the early centuries of the Church, it was expected that any candidate forbishopwould be able to recite the entire Psalter from memory, something they often learned automatically[45]during their time as monks. Paul the Apostlequotes psalms (specifically Psalms14and53, which are nearly identical) as the basis for his theory oforiginal sin, and includes the scripture in theEpistle to the Romans, chapter 3. Several conservative Protestant denominations sing only the Psalms (some churches also sing the small number of hymns found elsewhere in the Bible) in worship, and do not accept the use of any non-Biblical hymns; examples are theReformed Presbyterian Church of North America, thePresbyterian Reformed Church (North America)and theFree Church of Scotland (Continuing). Some Psalms are among the best-known and best-loved passages of Scripture, with a popularity extending well beyond regular church-goers[citation needed][peacockterm]. Psalm 22is of particular importance during the season ofLentas a Psalm of continued faith during severe testing. Psalm 23,The LORD is My Shepherd, offers an immediately appealing message of comfort and is widely chosen for churchfuneralservices, either as a reading or in one of several popular hymn settings; Psalm 51,Have mercy on me O God, called theMisererefrom the first word in its Latin version, is by far the most sung Psalm of Orthodoxy[citation needed], in bothDivine LiturgyandHours, in the sacrament of repentance or confession, and in other settings; Psalm 82is found in theBook of Common Prayeras a funeral recitation. Psalm 103,Bless the Lord, O my soul, is one of the best-known[citation needed]prayers of praise. The psalm was adapted for the musicalGodspell; Psalm 137,By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept, is a moody meditation upon living inslavery, and has been used in at least onespiritual[citation needed], as well as one Orthodox church often uses this hymn duringLent. This psalm was adapted for the songOn the Willowsin the musicalGodspell. New translations and settings of the Psalms continue to be produced. An individually printed volume of Psalms for use in Christian religious rituals is called aPsalter. Eastern Orthodox Christianity[edit] See also:Kathisma Orthodox Christiansand Greek-Catholics (Eastern Catholicswho follow theByzantine rite), have long made the Psalms an integral part of their corporate and private prayers. The official version of thePsalterused by the Orthodox Church is theSeptuagint. To facilitate its reading, the 150 Psalms are divided into 20kathismata(Greek: καθίσματα; Slavonic: каѳисмы,kafismy; lit. "sittings") and eachkathisma(Greek: κάθισμα; Slavonic: каѳисма,kafisma) is further subdivided into threestases(Greek: στάσεις,staseislit. "standings", sing. στάσις,stasis), so-called because the faithful stand at the end of eachstasisfor theGlory to the Father.... AtVespersandMatins, differentkathismataare read at different times of theliturgical yearand on different days of the week, according to the Church's calendar, so that all 150 psalms (20kathismata) are read in the course of a week. DuringGreat Lent, the number ofkathismatais increased so that the entire Psalter is read twice a week. In the twentieth century, some lay Christians have adopted a continuous reading of the Psalms on weekdays, praying the whole book in four weeks. Aside fromkathismareadings, Psalms occupy a prominent place in every other Orthodox service including theservices of the Hoursand theDivine Liturgy. In particular, the penitentialPsalm 50is very widely used. Fragments of Psalms and individual verses are used asProkimena(introductions to Scriptural readings) andStichera. The bulk ofVesperswould still be composed of Psalms even if the kathisma were to be disregarded;Psalm 119, "The Psalm of theLaw", is the centerpiece ofMatinson Saturdays, some Sundays, and theFuneralservice. The entire book of Psalms is traditionally read out loud or chanted at the side of the deceased during the time leading up to the funeral, mirroring Jewish tradition. Oriental Christianity[edit] Several branches ofOriental Orthodoxand thoseEastern Catholicswho follow one of the Oriental Rites will chant the entire Psalter during the course of a day during theDaily Office. This practice continues to be a requirement ofmonasticsin the Oriental churches. Roman Catholic usage[edit] The Psalms have always been an important part ofCatholicliturgy. TheLiturgy of the Hoursis centered on chanting or recitation of the Psalms, using fixedmelodic formulasknown aspsalm tones. Early Catholics employed the Psalms widely in their individual prayers also; however, as knowledge ofLatin(the language of theRoman Rite) became uncommon, this practice ceased among the unlearned. However, until the end of the Middle Ages, it was not unknown for the laity to join in the singing of theLittle Office of Our Lady, which was a shortened version of the Liturgy of the Hours providing a fixed daily cycle of twenty-five psalms to be recited, and nine other psalms divided across Matins. The work of BishopRichard Challonerin providing devotional materials in English meant that many of the psalms were familiar to English-speaking Catholics from the eighteenth century onwards. Challoner translated the entirety of the Lady Office into English, as well as Sunday Vespers and daily Compline. He also provided other individual Psalms such as 129/130 for prayer in his devotional books. Challoner is also noted for revising theDouay-Rheims Bible, and the translations he used in his devotional books are taken from this work. Until theSecond Vatican Councilthe Psalms were either recited on a one-week or, less commonly (as in the case ofAmbrosian rite), two-week cycle. Different one-week schemata were employed: most secular clergy followed the Roman distribution, while Monastic Houses almost universally followed that ofSt Benedict, with only a few congregations (such as theBenedictinesof St Maur) following individualistic arrangements. TheBreviaryintroduced in 1974 distributed the psalms over a four-week cycle. Monastic usage varies widely. Some use the four-week cycle of the secular clergy, many retain a one-week cycle, either following St Benedict's scheme or another of their own devising, while others opt for some other arrangement. Official approval was also given to other arrangements (see"Short" Breviaries in the 20th and early 21st century Americafor an in-progress study) by which the complete Psalter is recited in a one-week or two-week cycle. These arrangements are used principally by Catholic contemplative religious orders, such as that of theTrappists(see for examplethe Divine Office schedule at New Melleray Abbey). TheGeneral Instruction of the Liturgy of the Hours, 122 sanctions three modes of singing/recitation for the Psalms: directly (all sing or recite the entire psalm); antiphonally(two choirs or sections of the congregation sing or recite alternate verses or strophes); and responsorially(the cantor or choir sings or recites the verses while the congregation sings or recites a given response after each verse). Of these three the antiphonal mode is the most widely followed. Over the centuries, the use of complete Psalms in theliturgydeclined. After theSecond Vatican Council(which also permitted the use of vernacular languages in the liturgy), longer psalm texts were reintroduced into the Mass, during the readings. Therevisionof theRoman Missalafter theSecond Vatican Councilreintroduced the singing or recitation of a more substantial section of a Psalm, in some cases an entire Psalm, after the first Reading from Scripture. This Psalm, called theResponsorial Psalm,is usually sung or recited responsorially, although theGeneral Instruction of the Roman Missal, 61 permits direct recitation. Protestant usage[edit] Psalm 1 in a form of theSternhold and Hopkinsversion widespread in Anglican usage before the English Civil War (1628 printing). It was from this version that the armies sang before going into battle. Following theProtestant Reformation,versified translationsof many of the Psalms were set ashymns. These were particularly popular in theCalvinisttradition, where in the past they were typically sungto the exclusion of hymns.Calvinhimself made some French translations of the Psalms for church usage, but the completedPsaltereventually used in church services consisted exclusively of translations byClément MarotandThéodore de Bèze, on melodies by a number of composers, includingLouis Bourgeoisand a certain Maistre Pierre.Martin Luther'sA Mighty Fortress Is Our Godis based on Psalm 46. Among famous hymn settings of the Psalter were theScottish Psalterand the paraphrases byIsaac Watts. The first book printed in North America was a collection of Psalm settings, th Psalm Book(1640). By the 20th century, they were mostly replaced by hymns in church services. However, the Psalms are popular for private devotion among many Protestants and still used in many churches for traditional worship.[47]There exists in some circles a custom of reading one Psalm and one chapter ofProverbsa day, corresponding to the day of the month. Metrical Psalms are still very popular among manyReformed Churches. Anglican usage[edit] Anglican chantis a method of singing prose versions of the Psalms. In the early 17th century, when the King James Bible was introduced, the metrical arrangements by Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins were also popular and were provided with printed tunes. This version and theNew Version of the Psalms of Davidby Tate and Brady produced in the late seventeenth century (see article onMetrical Psalter) remained the normal congregational way of singing psalms in the Church of England until well into the nineteenth century. In Great Britain, the Coverdale psalter still lies at the heart of daily worship inCathedralsand manyparish churches. The newCommon Worshipservice book has a companion psalter in modern English. The version of the Psalter in the AmericanBook of Common Prayerprior to the 1979 edition is a The Psalter in the American Book of Common Prayer of 1979 is a new translation, with some attempt to keep the rhythms of the Coverdale Psalter. Psalms in the Rastafari movement[edit] The Psalms are one of the most popular parts of the Bible among followers of theRastafari movement.[48]Rasta singerPrince Far Ireleased an atmospheric spoken version of the psalms,Psalms for I, set to aroots reggaebackdrop fromThe Aggrovators. ***TheIsraeli disengagement from Gaza(Hebrew:תוכנית ההתנתקות‬,Tokhnit HaHitnatkut; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from inside theGaza Strip, and the dismantling of allIsraeli settlements in the Gaza Stripin 2005.[1] Despite the disengagement, the Gaza Strip is still considered by theUnited Nations, international human rights organisations and most legal scholars to be undermilitary occupationby Israel,[2]though this is disputed by Israel and other legal scholars.[3]Following the withdrawal, Israel has continued to maintain direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza: it controls Gaza's air and maritime space, and six of Gaza's seven land crossings, it maintains a no-go buffer zone within the territory, and controls Gaza’s population registry, and Gaza remains dependent on Israel for its water, electricity, telecommunications, and other utilities.[2][4] The disengagement was proposed in 2003 by Prime MinisterAriel Sharon, adopted by the government in June 2004, approved by theKnessetin February 2005 and enacted in August 2005. Israeli citizens who refused to accept government compensation packages and voluntarily vacate their homes prior to the August 15, 2005 deadline, were evicted by Israeli security forces over a period of several days.[5]The eviction of all residents, demolition of the residential buildings and evacuation of associated security personnel from the Gaza Strip was completed by September 12, 2005.[6]The eviction and dismantlement of the four settlements in the northern West Bank was completed ten days later. A total of 8,000 Jewish settlers from all 21 settlements in the Gaza Strip were relocated. The average settler received compensation of more than U.S $200,000.[7] Demographic concerns – retaining a Jewish majority in Israeli-controlled areas – played a significant role in the development of the policy,[8][9][10][11]being partly attributed to the campaign by demographerArnon Soffer.[12] Contents 1 Rationale and development of the policy 2 Political approval process 3 Description of the plan 4 Execution of the plan 4.1 Greenhouses 5 Aftermath 5.1 Compensation and resettlement 5.1.1 New Gush Katif Communities 5.2 Fatah–Hamas conflict 5.3 Museum 6 Criticisms and opinions 6.1 Pro-withdrawal 6.2 Positions of foreign governments 6.2.1 United States 6.2.2 European Union 6.2.3 United Nations 6.3 Public opinion 6.3.1 Palestinian 6.3.2 Israeli opinions 6.3.3 American opinions 6.4 Israeli media coverage 7 See also 8 Bibliography 9 References 10 External links 10.1 Official documents 10.2 News reports 10.3 Commentary Rationale and development of the policy In his bookSharon: The Life of a Leader, Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's son Gilad wrote that he gave his father the idea of the disengagement.[13]Sharon had originally dubbed hisunilateraldisengagement plan, the "separation plan" orTokhnit HaHafradabefore realizing that, "separation sounded bad, particularly in English, because it evoked apartheid."[14] In a November 2003 interview,Ehud Olmert, Sharon’sdeputy leader, who had been “dropping unilateralist hints for two or three months”, explained his developing policy as follows:[15][16][17] There is no doubt in my mind that very soon the government of Israel is going to have to address the demographic issue with the utmost seriousness and resolve. This issue above all others will dictate the solution that we must adopt. In the absence of a negotiated agreement - and I do not believe in the realistic prospect of an agreement - we need to implement a unilateral alternative... More and more Palestinians are uninterested in a negotiated, two-state solution, because they want to change the essence of the conflict from an Algerian paradigm to a South African one. From a struggle against `occupation,' in their parlance, to a struggle for one-man-one-vote. That is, of course, a much cleaner struggle, a much more popular struggle - and ultimately a much more powerful one. For us, it would mean the end of the Jewish state... the parameters of a unilateral solution are: To maximize the number of Jews; to minimize the number of Palestinians; not to withdraw to the 1967 border and not to divide Jerusalem... Twenty-three years ago, Moshe Dayan proposed unilateral autonomy. On the same wavelength, we may have to espouse unilateral separation... [it] would inevitably preclude a dialogue with the Palestinians for at least 25 years.[18] Sharon suggested his disengagement plan for the first time on December 18, 2003 at the Fourth Herzliya Conference. In his address to the Conference, Sharon stated that ″settlements which will be relocated are those which will not be included in the territory of the State of Israel in the framework of any possible future permanent agreement. At the same time, in the framework of the Disengagement Plan, Israel will strengthen its control over those same areas in the Land of Israel which will constitute an inseparable part of the State of Israel in any future agreement.″[19]It was at this time that he began to use the word "occupation".Bernard Avishaistates that the Gaza withdrawal was designed to obviate rather than facilitate peace negotiations: Sharon enivisaged at the same time annexing Jerusalem, theJordan Valley, and the major settlements likeMa'ale AdumimandArielwhich he had in the meantime developed, and thereby isolate Palestinians on the West Bank in territory that constituted less than half of what existed beyond theGreen Line.[20] Sharon formally announced the plan in his April 14, 2004 letter to U.S. PresidentGeorge W. Bush, stating that "there exists no Palestinian partner with whom to advance peacefully toward a settlement".[21] On June 6, 2004, Sharon's government approved an amended disengagement plan, but with the reservation that the dismantling of each settlement should be voted separately. On October 11, at the opening of the Knesset winter session, Sharon outlined his plan to start legislation for the disengagement in the beginning of November and on October 26, the Knesset gave its preliminary approval. On February 16, 2005, the Knesset finalized and approved the plan. In October 2004, Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's senior adviser,Dov Weissglass, explained the meaning of Sharon's statement further: The significance of the disengagement plan is the freezing of the peace process, and when you freeze that process, you prevent the establishment of a Palestinian state, and you prevent a discussion on the refugees, the borders and Jerusalem. Effectively, this whole package called the Palestinian state, with all that it entails, has been removed indefinitely from our agenda. And all this with authority and permission. All with a presidential blessing and the ratification of both houses of Congress. That is exactly what happened. You know, the term `peace process' is a bundle of concepts and commitments. The peace process is the establishment of a Palestinian state with all the security risks that entails. The peace process is the evacuation of settlements, it's the return of refugees, it's the partition of Jerusalem. And all that has now been frozen.... what I effectively agreed to with the Americans was that part of the settlements would not be dealt with at all, and the rest will not be dealt with until the Palestinians turn into Finns. That is the significance of what we did.[22] Demographic concerns, the maintenance of a Jewish majority in Israeli-controlled areas, played a significant role in the development of the policy.[8][9][10] The rationale for the disengagement has been partly attributed toArnon Soffer’s campaign regarding "the danger the Palestinian womb posed to Israeli democracy."[12]Sharon mentioned the demographic rationale in a public address on 15 August 2005, the day of the disengagement, as follows: "It is no secret that, like many others, I had believed and hoped we could forever hold onto Netzarim and Kfar Darom. But the changing reality in the country, in the region, and the world, required of me a reassessment and change of positions. We cannot hold on to Gaza forever. More than a million Palestinians live there and double their number with each generation."[23][24]At the same time,Shimon Peres, thenVice Prime Minister, stated in an interview that: “We are disengaging from Gaza because of demography”.[24] Continued control of Gaza was considered to pose an impossible dilemma with respect to Israel’s ability to be aJewish and democratic statein all the territories it controls.[11][25] Political approval process This sectionneeds additional citations forverification.Please helpimprove this articlebyadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources:"Israeli disengagement from 2014)(Learn how and when to remove this template message) Failing to gain public support from senior ministers, Sharon agreed that theLikudparty would hold areferendumon the plan in advance of a vote by theIsraeli Cabinet. The referendum was held on May 2, 2004 and ended with 65% of the voters against the disengagement plan, despite some polls showing approximately 55% of Likud members supporting the plan before the referendum. Commentators and the press described the rejection of the plan as a blow to Sharon. Sharon himself announced that he accepted the Likud referendum results and would take time to consider his steps. He orderedMinister of DefenseShaul Mofazto create an amended plan which Likud voters could accept. On June 6, 2004, Sharon's government approved an amended disengagement plan, but with the reservation that the dismantling of each settlement should be voted separately. The plan was approved with a 14–7 majority but only after theNational Unionministers and cabinet membersAvigdor LibermanandBinyamin Elonwere dismissed from the cabinet, and a compromise offer by Likud's cabinet memberTzipi Livniwas achieved. Following the approval of the plan, it was decided to close the Erez industrial zone and move its factories to cities and towns in Israel such andSderot.Ehud Olmert, then the Minister of Industry, Trade, and Labor, stated that the closing was part of Israel's plan to withdraw from the Gaza Strip.[26] As a result of the passing of the plan (in principle), twoNational Religious Party(NRP) ministers,Effi EitamandYitzhak Levi, resigned, leaving the government with a minority in theKnesset. Later, the entire faction quit after their calls to hold a national referendum were ignored. Sharon's pushing through this plan alienated many of his supporters on the right and garnered him unusual support from the left-wing in Israel. The right believes that Sharon ignored the mandate he had been elected on, and instead adopted the platform of Mitzna, who was overwhelmingly defeated when he campaigned on a disengagement plan of far smaller magnitude. At that time, Sharon referred to Gaza communities such asNetzarimas "no different thanTel Aviv", and said that they are of such strategic value that "the fate of Netzarim is the fate of Tel Aviv." Many on both sides remained skeptical of his will to carry out a withdrawal beyond Gaza and the northern West Bank. Sharon had a majority for the plan in the government but not within his own party. This forced him to seek a National Unity government, which was established in January 2005. Opponents of the plan, and some ministers, such asBenjamin Netanyahuand former ministerNatan Sharansky, called on Sharon to hold a national referendum to prove that he had a mandate, which he refused to do. On September 14, the Israeli cabinet approved, by a 9–1 majority, plans to compensate settlers who left the Gaza Strip, with only the NRP'sZevulun Orlevopposing. The government's plan for compensation used a formula that based actual amounts on location, house size, and number of family members among other factors. Most families were expected to receive between US$200,000 and 300,000. On October 11, at the opening of theKnessetwinter session, Sharon outlined his plan to start legislation for the disengagement in the beginning of November. In a symbolic act, the Knesset voted 53–44 against Sharon's address: Labor voted against, while theNational Religious Partyand ten members of Likud refused to support Sharon in the vote.[clarification needed] On October 26, the Knesset gave preliminary approval for the plan with 67 for, 45 against, 7 abstentions, and 1 member absent. Netanyahu and three other cabinet ministers from Sharon's ruling Likud government threatened to resign unless Sharon agreed to hold a national referendum on the plan within fourteen days. On November 9, Netanyahu withdrew his resignation threat, saying "In this new situation [the death ofYasser Arafat], I decided to stay in the government". Following the vote fourteen days earlier, and Sharon's subsequent refusal to budge on the referendum issue, the three other cabinet ministers from the Likud party backed down from their threat within days. On December 30, Sharon made a deal with the Labor Party to form a coalition, withShimon PeresbecomingVice Premier, restoring the government's majority in the Knesset. On February 16, 2005, the Knesset finalized and approved the plan with 59 in favor, 40 opposed, 5 abstaining. A proposed amendment to submit the plan to a referendum was rejected, 29–72. On March 17, theSouthern Commandof theIsrael Defense Forcesissued a military order prohibiting Israeli citizens not living in the Gaza Strip settlements from taking up residence there. On March 28, the Knesset again rejected a bill to delay the implementation of the disengagement plan by a vote of 72 to 39. The bill was introduced by a group of Likud MKs who wanted to force a referendum on the issue.[27] On August 7, Netanyahu resigned just prior to the cabinet ratification of the first phase of the disengagement plan by a vote of 17 to 5. Netanyahu blamed the Israeli government for moving "blindly along" with the disengagement by not taking into account the expected upsurge in terrorism. On August 10, in his first speech before the Knesset following his resignation, Netanyahu spoke of the necessity for Knesset members to oppose the proposed disengagement. "Only we in the Knesset are able to stop this evil. Everything that the Knesset has decided, it is also capable of changing. I am calling on all those who grasp the danger: Gather strength and do the right thing. I don't know if the entire move can be stopped, but it still might be stopped in its initial stages. [Don't] give [the Palestinians] guns, don't give them rockets, don't give them a sea port, and don't give them a huge base for terror."[citation needed] On August 15, Sharon said that, while he had hoped Israel could keep the Gaza settlements forever, reality simply intervened. "It is out of strength and not weakness that we are taking this step", repeating his argument that the disengagement plan has given Israel the diplomatic initiative. On August 31, the Knesset voted to withdraw from the Gaza-Egypt border and to allow Egyptian deployment of border police along the demilitarized Egyptian side of the border, revising the previously stated intent to maintain Israeli control of the border. Description of the plan The Gaza Strip contained 21 civilianIsraeli settlementsand the area evacuated in the West Bank contained four, as follows: In the Gaza Strip (21 settlements): Bedolah Bnei Atzmon (Atzmona) Dugit Elei Sinai Gadid Gan Or Ganei Tal Katif Kfar Darom Kfar Yam Kerem Atzmona Morag Neve Dekalim Netzarim Netzer Hazani Nisanit Pe'at Sadeh Rafiah Yam Slav Shirat Hayam Tel Katifa In the West Bank (4 settlements): Kadim Ganim Homesh Sa-Nur Israeli–Palestinian coordination effort, 2005 HermeshandMevo Dotanin the northwestern West Bank were included in the original disengagement plans,[citation needed]but were dropped from the plans in March. Sharon said that his plan was designed to improve Israel's security and international status in the absence of political negotiations to end theIsraeli–Palestinian conflict. About nine thousand Israeli residents withinGazawere instructed to leave the area or faceevictionby the night of Tuesday August 16, 2005.[citation needed] Under the Revised Disengagement Plan adopted on June 6, 2004, the IDF was to have remained on the Gaza-Egypt border and could have engaged in further house demolitions to widen a 'buffer zone' there (Art 6). However, Israel later decided to leave the border area, which is now controlled byEgyptand the Palestinians, through thePNA. Israel will continue to control Gaza's coastline and airspace and reserves the right to undertake military operations when necessary. (Art 3.1). Egypt will control Gaza's Egyptian border. Israel will continue to provide Gaza with water, communication, electricity, and sewage networks.[28] The agreements brokered, according toCondoleezza Rice, stipulated that, For the first time since 1967, Palestinian authorities would have complete control over exits and entrances to their territory. That both parties to the agreement, Israel and Palestinians, would upgrade and expand crossings to facilitate the movement of people and goods between Israel, Gaza and the West Bank. Palestinians would be allowed the use of bus and truck convoys to move between Gaza and the West Bank. Obstacles to movement in the West bank would be lifted. A Palestinian seaport was to be constructed on the Gaza littoral. A Palestinian airport was considered important by both sides. and the United States was encouraging Israel to entertain the idea that construction to that end was to be resumed.[29] Because the Palestinian Authority in Gaza did not believe it had sufficient control of the area at this time, foreign observers such as the International Committee of the Red Cross,[30]Human Rights Watch[31]and various legal experts[32]have argued that the disengagement will not end Israel's legal responsibility as an occupying power in Gaza. Israel and Egypt have concluded an agreement under which Egypt can increase the number of police on its side of the border, while the IDF evacuates the Gazan side. The text of the agreement is not yet public. Execution of the plan Residents protest during the forced evacuation of the Israeli community Kfar Darom. August 18, 2005. Residents protest against the evacuation of the Israeli community Kfar Darom. The sign reads: "Kfar Daromwill not fall twice!". August 18, 2005 A group of residents refuses to evacuate the Israeli settlementBedolach. August 17, 2005 The disengagement began with Operation "Yad l'Achim" (Hebrew: מבצע יד לאחים, “Giving brothers a hand"). The aim of the operation was to give the Gush Katif settlers the option to leave voluntarily. IDF soldiers helped the settlers who chose to do so by packing their belongings and carrying them. During the operation, soldiers went into settlers' homes and presented them with removal decrees. In addition, the IDF arranged crews of social nurses, psychologists, and support to youths. On April 8, 2005, Defense MinisterShaul Mofazsaid that Israel should consider not demolishing the evacuated buildings in the Gaza Strip, with the exception of synagogues (due to fears of their potential desecration, which eventually did occur),[33]since it would be more costly and time consuming. This contrasted with the original plan by the Prime Minister to demolish all vacated buildings. On May 9, the beginning of the evacuation of settlements was officially postponed from July 20 until August 15, so as to not coincide with the Jewish period ofThe Three Weeksand the fast ofTisha B'Av, traditionally marking grief and destruction. On July 13, Sharon signed the closure order ofGush Katif, making the area a closed military zone. From that point on, only residents who presented Israeli ID cards with their registered address in Gush Katif were permitted to enter. Permits for 24–48 hours were given to select visitors for a few weeks before the entire area was completely sealed off to non-residents. Despite this ban, opponents of the disengagement managed to sneak in by foot through fields and bare soil. Estimates range from a few hundred to a few thousand people for those there illegally at that time. At one point, Sharon contemplated deployingIsrael Border Police(Magav) forces to remove non-residents, but decided against it, as the manpower requirement would have been too great. At midnight between August 14 and 15, the Kissufim crossing was shut down, and the Gaza Strip became officially closed for entrance by Israelis. The evacuation by agreement continued after midnight of the August 17 for settlers who requested a time extension for packing their things. The Gush Katif Municipal Council threatened to unilaterally declare independence, citing theGaza Strip's internationally disputed status andHalachaas a foundation. Meanwhile, on August 14,Aryeh Yitzhakiproclaimed the independence ofShirat HaYamas "The Independent Jewish Authority in Gaza Beach", and submitted appeals for recognition to theUnited NationsandRed Cross. On August 15, the evacuation commenced under the orders of Maj. Gen.Dan Harelof theSouthern Command. At 8a.m., a convoy of security forces enteredNeve Dekalimand began evacuating residents. Although many settlers chose to leave peacefully, others were forcibly evicted, while some attempted to block buses and clashed with security forces. The evacuations of six settlements then commenced as 14,000 Israeli soldiers and police officers forcibly evicted settlers and "mistanenim" (infiltrators). They went house to house, ordering settlers to leave and breaking down the doors of those who did not. There were scenes of troops dragging screaming and sobbing families from houses and synagogues, but with less violence than expected. Some of the soldiers were also observed sobbing, and there were instances of soldiers joining settlers in prayer before evicting them. Some settlers lit their homes on fire as they evacuated so as to leave the Palestinians nothing. Settlers blocked roads, lit fires, and pleaded with soldiers to disobey orders. One West Bank settler set herself on fire in front of a Gaza checkpoint, and inNeve Dekalim, a group of fifteen American Orthodox Jews barricaded themselves in a basement and threatened to light themselves on fire.[34] Kfar Daromwas next evacuated. Residents and their supporters strung up barbed wire fences around the area, and security forces cut their way in. Some 300 settlers barricaded themselves in the local synagogue, while another group barricaded themselves on the roof with barbed wire, and pelted security forces with various objects. Police removed them by force after negotiations failed, and there were injuries to both settlers and officers. On August 17, the settlement ofMoragwas evacuated by 200 police officers. On August 18, Shirat HaYam was evacuated by military and police forces, after infiltrators had been removed and the settlement's speaker system was disabled after settlers used it to call on troops to disobey orders. Youth placed obstacles made of flammable materials and torched tires and garbage dumpsters. Fires spread to Palestinian areas, and IDF bulldozers were deployed to put them out. A number of people also barricaded themselves in the synagogue and public buildings and on a deserted rooftop.Aryeh Yitzhakidefended his home with anM16 rifle, and dozens of settlers barricaded themselves inside or on the roof of his home, with at least four of those on the rooftop being armed. A brief stand-off with security forces ensued, and snipers were deployed after Yitzhaki threatened to fire at troops. Security forces stormed the rooftop and arrested settlers without any violence. IDF and police forces evacuated the home after Yitzhaki surrendered weapons and ammunition belonging to his group, but were met with bags of paint and whitewash thrown by settlers, and Yitzhaki's wife and another right-wing activist initially refused to evacuate and lay on the ground holding their infants.[35] Bedouincitizens of Israel from the village ofDahaniya, situated in the no-man's land on the Israel-Gaza Strip border, were evacuated and resettled inArad. The village had a long history of cooperation with Israel, and the residents, who were viewed in Gaza as traitors, had asked to be evacuated due to security concerns.[36][37][38] On August 19,The Guardianreported that some settlers had their children leave their homes with their hands up, or wearing aStar of Davidbadge, to associate the actions of Israel withNazi Germanyand theHolocaust.[39]Some protestors said that they would "not golike sheep to the slaughter", a phrase strongly associated with the Holocaust.[40]On August 22,Netzarimwas evacuated by the Israeli military.[41]This officially marked the end of the 38-year-long presence of Israeli settlers in the Gaza Strip, though the official handover was planned for several weeks later. The evacuation of the settlers was completed by 22 August, after which demolition crews razed 2,800 houses, community buildings and 26 synagogues.[42]Two synagogues, whose construction allowed for them to be taken apart and reassembled, were dismantled and rebuilt in Israel. The demolition of the homes was completed on September 1, while the Shirat HaYam hotel was demolished later.[43] On August 28, the IDF began dismantling Gush Katif's 48-grave cemetery. All of the bodies were removed by special teams of soldiers supervised by theMilitary Rabbinateand reburied in locations of their families' choosing. In accordance with Jewish law, all soil touching the remains was also transferred, and the dead were given second funerals, with the families observing a one-day mourning period. All coffins were draped in the Israeli flag on the way to reburial. The transfer was completed on September 1.[44][45] The IDF also pulled out its forces in the Gaza Strip, and had withdrawn 95% of its military equipment by September 1. On September 7, the IDF announced that it planned to advance its full withdrawal from the Gaza Strip to September 12, pending cabinet approval.[46]It was also announced that in the area evacuated in the West Bank the IDF planned to transfer all control (excluding building permits and anti-terrorism) to the PNA – the area will remain "Area C" (full Israeli control)de jure, but "Area A" (full PNA control)de facto. When the disengagement began, Israel had not yet decided on whether or not to withdraw from thePhiladelphi Route, a narrow strip of land serving as a buffer zone along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. Although Sharon was initially opposed to withdrawing from the Philadelphi Route, he relented after legal advisers told him that it was impossible to declare Israel had fully withdrawn from the Gaza Strip so long as it controlled the border with Egypt.[47]On August 28, the Israeli government approved the Philadelphi Accord, under which Egypt, which was prohibited from militarizing the Sinai without Israeli approval as per its peace treaty with Israel, was authorized to deploy 750 border guards equipped with heavy weaponry to the Philadelphi Route. The agreement was approved by theKnesseton August 31.[48]On September 12, the IDF withdrew all forces from the Philadelphi Route. The Israeli Supreme Court, in response to a settlers' petition to block the government's destruction of the synagogues, gave the go-ahead to the Israeli government. Sharon decided not to proceed with their demolition, however.[42]On September 11, the Israeli cabinet revised an earlier decision to destroy the synagogues of the settlements. ThePalestinian Authorityprotested Israel's decision, arguing that it would rather Israel dismantle the synagogues.[49]On September 11, a ceremony was held when the last Israeli flag was lowered in the IDF's Gaza Strip divisional headquarters.[50]All remaining IDF forces left the Gaza Strip in the following hours. The last soldier left the strip, and theKissufimgate was closed on the early morning of September 12.[51]This completed the Israeli pullout from the Gaza Strip. However, an official handover ceremony was cancelled after thePalestinian Authorityboycotted it in response to Israel's decision not to demolish the synagogues. On September 20, the IDF temporarily entered the northern Gaza Strip, constructing a buffer zone parallel to the border near Beit Hanoun before pulling out.[52]On September 21, Israel officially declared the Gaza Strip to be an extraterritorial jurisdiction and the four border crossings on the Israel-Gaza border to be international border crossings, with a valid passport or other appropriate travel documents now required to cross through them.[53] All of thegreenhousesin the settlements were supposed to be intact after theEconomic Cooperation Foundationraised $14million to buy the greenhouses for the Palestinian Authority,[54]although about half of them were previously demolished by their own owners before being evacuated for lack of the agreed payment.[55] Residents ofElei Sinaicamping inYad Mordechai, just over the border from their former homes. A protest camp inTel Avivby members ofNetzer Hazanileft without homes On September 22, the IDF evacuated the four settlements in the northern West Bank. While the residents of Ganim and Kadim, mostly middle-class seculars, had long since left their homes, several families and about 2,000 outsiders tried to prevent the evacuation of Sa-Nur and Homesh, which had a larger percent of observant population. Following negotiations, the evacuation was completed relatively peacefully. The settlements were subsequently razed, with 270 homes being bulldozed. In Sa-Nur, the synagogue was left intact, but was buried under mounds of sand by bulldozers to prevent its destruction by the Palestinians.[56] During the pullout, hundreds of people were arrested for rioting, and criminal charges were filed against 482 of them. On January 25, 2010, theKnessetpassed a bill granting a general amnesty to around 400 of them, mostly teenagers. While most had by then finished serving their sentences, their criminal records were expunged. The people who were not pardoned as part of this amnesty had either been convicted of crimes that involved endangering human life, and involved the use of explosives or serious violence, or had a previous criminal record.[57] Following Israel's withdrawal, on 12 September Palestinian crowds entered the settlements waving PLO and Hamas flags, firing gunshots into the air and setting off firecrackers, and chanting slogans. Radicals among them desecrated 4 synagogues as the world's cameras rolled, a sight one observer interprets as demonstrating Sharon's understanding of public relations. Destroyed homes were held celebratory prayers in Kfar Darom synagogue as mobs continued to ransack and loot synagogues.[59]Palestinian Authority security forces did not intervene, and announced that the synagogues would be destroyed. Less than 24 hours after the withdrawal, Palestinian Authority bulldozers began to demolish the remaining synagogues.[60][61][62]Hamas took credit for the withdrawal, and one of their banners read: 'Four years of resistance beat ten years of negotiations.'[42] Greenhouses A widespread opinion has it that Israel left Gazans with a generous endowment consisting of a rich infrastructure of greenhouses to assist their economic regrowth, and that this was immediately destroyed by the months prior to the withdrawal, half of the 21 settlements' greenhouses, spread over 1,000 acres, had been dismantled by their owners, leaving the remainder on 500 acres, placing its business viability on a weak footing. International bodies, and pressure fromJames Wolfensohn,Middle East envoy of the Quartet, who gave $500,000 of his own money, offered incentives for the rest to be left to the Palestinians of Gaza. An agreement was reached with Israel under international law to destroy the settlers' houses and shift the rubble to Egypt. The disposal ofasbestospresented a particular problem: some 60,000 truckloads of rubble required passage to Egypt.[71] The remaining settlements'greenhouseswere looted by Palestinians for 2 days after the transfer, for irrigation pipes, water pumps, plastic sheeting and glass, but the greenhouses themselves remained structurally intact, until order was restored.[55][70][72]Palestinian Authority security forces attempted to stop them, but did not have enough manpower to be effective. In some places, there was no security, while some Palestinian police officers joined the looters.[73][74]The Palestine Economic Development Company (PED) invested $20,000,000 and by October the industry was back on its feet.[70]Subsequently, the harvest, intended for export via Israel for Europe, was essentially lost due to Israeli restrictions on theKarni crossingwhich "was closed more than not", leading to losses in excess of $120,000 per day.[73]Economic consultants estimated that the closures cost the whole agricultural sector in Gaza $450,000 a day in lost revenue.[75]25 truckloads of produce per diem through that crossing were needed to render the project viable, but only rarely were just 3 truckloads able to obtain transit at the crossing, which however functioned only sporadically, with Israel citing security concerns.[70]It appears that on both sides corruption prevailed, such as instances of Gazans negotiating with Israeli officers at the crossing and offering bribes to get their trucks over the border.[72]By early 2006, farmers, faced with the slowness of transit, were forced to dump most of their produce at the crossing where it was eaten by goats.Ariel Sharonfell ill, anew Israeli administrationeventually came to power and Wolfensohn resigned his office, after suffering from obstacles placed in his way by the U.S. administration, which was sceptical of the agreements reached on border terminals. Wolfensohn attributed this policy of hindrance toElliott Abrams. Further complications arose fromHamas's election victoryin January 2006, and the rift that emerged between Hamas andFatah. He attributed the electoral success of Hamas to the frustration felt by Palestinians over the non-implementation of these agreements, which shattered their brief experience of normality. "Instead of hope, the Palestinians saw that they were put back in prison," he concluded.[70][72]The project was shut down in April 2006 when money ran out to pay the agricultural workers.[70] Aftermath After Israel's withdrawal, the Palestinians were given control over the Gaza Strip, except for the borders, the airspace and theterritorial waters. The area of the dismantled West Bank settlements remained part ofArea C, (area under full Israeli civil and military control). On 23 September, hours after rockets were shot into Israel, a Hamas pickup truck in the Jabaliya Refugee camp was struck by a missile, killing 10 militants and injuring 85 people. On 26 September, Israel killedPalestinian Islamic Jihadcommander Mohammad Khalil and his bodyguard with a missile strike; on 29 September Israel closed all Hamas charities on the West Bank, and as part of a five-day offensive fired artillery into the Gaza Strip.[76] A British Parliamentary commission, summing up the situation eight months later, found that while theRafah crossingagreement worked efficiently, from January–April 2006, theKarni crossingwas closed 45% of the time, and severe limitations were in place on exports from Gaza, with, according toOCHAfigures, only 1,500 of 8,500 tons of produce getting through; that they were informed most closures were unrelated to security issues in Gaza but either responses to violence in the West Bank or for no given reason. The promised transit of convoys between Gaza and the West Bank was not honoured; with Israel insisting that such convoys could only pass if they passed through a specially constructed tunnel or ditch, requiring a specific construction project in the future; Israel withdrew from implementation talks in December 2005 after a suicide bombing attack on Israelis inNetanya[29]by a Palestinian fromKafr Rai.[77] Compensation and resettlement Under legislation passed by theKnesset, evacuated settlers were to be compensated for the loss of their homes, lands, and businesses. Originally, the law only allowed anyone age 21 or over who had lived in one of the evacuated settlements for over five consecutive years to be compensated, but theIsraeli Supreme Courtruled that compensation for younger settlers should also be included in compensation payments to evacuated families. Settlers who lived in the area for at least two years were eligible for more money. The Israeli government offered bonuses to settlers who moved to theGalileeorNegev, and implemented a program in which settlers had the option to build their own homes, with the option of a rental grant. The Housing Ministry doubled the number of apartments available in the Negev. Farmers were offered farmland or plots of land on which to build a home, in exchange for reduced compensation. Land was to be compensated at a rate of $50,000 per dunam (approximately $202,000 per acre), with homes being compensated at a rate per square meter. Workers who lost their jobs were eligible for unemployment benefits ranging from minimum wage to twice the average salary, for up to six months. Workers aged 50 to 55 were offered years' worth of unemployment benefits, and those over 55 were eligible for a pension until age 67. A special category was created for communities that moved en masse, with the government funding the replacement of communal buildings. In cases where communities did not stay together and communal property was lost, individuals would receive compensation for donations made to those buildings. Taxes on compensation sums given to business owners were reduced from ten to five percent. The total cost of the compensation package as adopted by the Knesset was $870million). Following an increase in the number of compensation claims after the disengagement, another 1.5billion NIS (approximately $250million) was added. In 2007, a further $125million was added to the compensation budget. Approximately $176million was to be paid directly to the evacuees, $66million to private business owners, and the rest was allocated to finance the government's pullout-related expenses. Yitzhak Meron, the lawyer who represented the evacuees, in dealing with the government offices, recently (11.08.2014) described how this came about, as well as his perception of the situation.[78] According to an Israeli committee of inquiry, the government failed to properly implement its compensation plans.[79]By April 2006, only minimal compensation (approximately $10,000) had been paid to families to survive until they obtained new jobs, which was difficult for most people, considering that most of the newly unemployed were middle-aged and lost the agricultural resources that were their livelihood. Those seeking compensation also had to negotiate legal and bureaucratic hurdles. This criticism received further support fromState ComptrollerMicha Lindenstrauss's, report, which determined that the treatment of the evacuees was a "big failure" and pointed out many shortcomings. By 2007, 56.8% of evacuees had found jobs, 22.3% were unemployed and seeking work, and 31.2% of evacuees were unemployed and living off government benefits rather than seeking work. The average monthly salary among the evacuees was NIS 5,380 (about $1,281), a slight rise of 2.1 percent from the average salary the year before. This was, however, a sharp drop of 39% from the settlers' average monthly income before the disengagement. The average salary among evacuees was lower than the general average, as compared to above average before the disengagement. In addition to a drop in salary, the evacuees also suffered a drop in their standard of living due to the increased price of goods and services in their places of residence as compared to the settlements.[80]Following the disengagement, settlers were temporarily relocated to hotels, sometimes for as long as half a year, before moving tomobile homesas temporary housing known as 'caravillas', before they could build proper homes. By June 2014, about 60% of evacuees were still living in these caravillas. Only 40% had moved to permanent housing, although construction of permanent settlements for the evacuees continues to progress. By July 2014, eleven towns for the evacuees had been completed with the expellees joining ten additional towns.[81]Many of the permanent settlements under construction were given names reminiscent of the former Gaza settlements. By August 2014, unemployment among evacuees had dropped to 18%. In 2010 a bill was introduced in the Knesset providing a basic pension to business owners whose businesses collapsed.[82][83][84] New Gush Katif Communities Bustan HaGalil Neve Yamnew community Avnei Eitan Maskiot Netzer, new neighborhood inAriel Netzer Hazaninew community Palmachim Yad Binyamin Nitzan Be'er Ganimnew community Hertzog new neighborhood inAshkelon Ganei Talnew community Karmei Katifnew community Bnei Dekalimnew community Neta new community inTel Katifa Shomriyanew community Teneh Omarim Bat Hadar Mavki'im Talmei Yafeh Shavei Daromnew community Navenew community Bnei Netzarimnew community[81] Fatah–Hamas conflict Main article:Fatah–Hamas conflict Following the withdrawal,Hamaswas elected as the Palestinian government which started the chain reaction leading toOperation "Summer Rains"later within that year. In December 2006, news reports indicated that a number of Palestinians were leaving the Gaza Strip, due to political disorder and "economic pressure" there.[85]In January 2007, fighting continued between Hamas andFatah, without any progress towards resolution or reconciliation.[86]Fighting spread to several points in the Gaza Strip with both factions attacking each other. In response to constant attacks by rocket fire from the Gaza Strip, Israel launched an airstrike which destroyed a building used by Hamas.[87]In June 2007 the Fatah–Hamas conflict reached its height and Hamas took control over the Gaza Strip.[88] Museum In August 2008, a museum ofGush Katifopened in Jerusalem nearMachane Yehuda. Yankeleh Klein, the museum director, sees it as an artistic commemoration of the expulsion from the 21 Gaza settlements, and the evacuees' longing to return. The art displayed in the museum is that of Gaza evacuees along with pieces by photographers and artists who were involved in the disengagement or were affected by it.[89] In the newly renovated Katif Center, more properly called the "Gush Katif Heritage Center in Nitzan," Israel, they combine modern technology with guided tours by Gush Katif expellees to provide a very emotional experience.[90]Project Coordinator Laurence Beziz notes that. "Our goal is to tell the story of 35 years of pioneering the land of Israel in Gush Katif and to allow an insight as to what life was in Gush Katif."[91] Criticisms and opinions The unilateral disengagement plan has been criticized from various viewpoints. In Israel, it has been criticized by the settlers themselves, supported by the Israeli right, who saw Ariel Sharon's action as a betrayal of his previous policies of support of settlement. Conversely, the disengagement has been criticized by parts of the Israeli left, who viewed it as nothing more than a mode of stalling negotiations and increasing Israeli presence in the West Bank.[citation needed]The disengagement also did not address wider issues of occupation. Israel retained control over Gaza’s borders, airspace, coastline, infrastructure, power, import-exports, etc. Pro-withdrawal The Disengagement Plan was also criticized by both Israelis and other observers from the opposite viewpoint as an attempt to make permanent the different settlements of the West Bank, while the Gaza strip was rendered to the Palestinian National Authority as an economically uninteresting territory with aMuslimpopulation of nearly 1.4million, seen as a "threat" to the Jewish identity of the Israeli democratic state. AsLeila Shahid, speaker of the PNA in Europe declared, the sole fact of carrying out the plan unilaterally already showed that the plan was only thought of according to the objectives of Israel as viewed by Sharon[citation needed].Brian Cowen,IrishForeign Minister and speaker of theEuropean Union(EU), announced the EU's disapproval of the plan's limited scope in that it did not address withdrawal from the entire West Bank. He said that the EU "will not recognize any change to thepre-1967 bordersother than those arrived at by agreement between the parties." However, Europe has given tentative backing to the Disengagement plan as part of theroad map for peace. Critics[who?]pointed out that, at the same time that Sharon was preparing the withdrawal, he was favoring settlements in the West Bank, among themMa'ale Adumim, the largest Israeli settlement near Jerusalem. According toPeace Now, the number of settlers increased by 6,100 compared with 2004, to reach 250,000 in the West Bank. In an October 6, 2004, interview withHaaretz,Dov Weissglass, Sharon's chief of staff, declared: "The significance of the disengagement plan is the freezing of the peace process.... When you freeze that process, you prevent the establishment of aPalestinian stateand you prevent a discussion on the refugees, the borders and Jerusalem. Disengagement supplies the amount of formaldehyde that is necessary so there will not be a political process with the Palestinians."[92] Positions of foreign governments United States President George W. Bush endorsed the plan as a positive step towards the road map for peace. At a joint press conference with Ariel Sharon on April 11, 2005 he said: I strongly support [Prime Minister Sharon's] courageous initiative to disengage from Gaza and part of the West Bank. The Prime Minister is willing to coordinate the implementation of the disengagement plan with the Palestinians. I urge the Palestinian leadership to accept his offer. By working together, Israelis and Palestinians can lay the groundwork for a peaceful transition.[93] And in his May 26, 2005, joint press conference welcoming Palestinian leaderMahmoud Abbasto theWhite House, President George W. Bush elaborated: The imminent Israeli disengagement from Gaza, parts of the West Bank, presents an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a return to theroad map.... To help ensure that the Gaza disengagement is a success, the United States will provide to the Palestinian Authority $50million to be used for new housing and infrastructure projects in the Gaza.[94] On April 11, 2005, President George W. Bush stated: As part of a final peace settlement, Israel must have secure and recognized borders, which should emerge from negotiations between the parties in accordance In light of new realities on the ground, including already existing major Israeli population centers, it is unrealistic that the outcome of final status negotiations will be a full and complete return to thearmistice lines of 1949. In his May 26, 2005 joint press conference with Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas, in theRose Garden, President George W. Bush stated his expectationsvis-a-visthe Roadmap Plan as follows: Any final status agreement must be reached between the two parties, and changes to the1949 Armistice linesmust be mutually agreed to. A viable two-state solution must ensure contiguity of the West Bank, and a state of scattered territories will not work. There must also be meaningful linkages between the West Bank and Gaza. This is the position of the United States today, it will be the position of the United States at the time of final status negotiations. European Union Javier Solana,High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP), stated on June 10, 2004: I welcome the Israeli Prime Minister's proposals for disengagement from Gaza. This represents an opportunity to restart the implementation of the Road Map, as endorsed by theUN Security Council. TheIrishMinister for Foreign Affairs, Brian Cowen (Ireland having Presidency of the EU at the time), announced the European Union's disapproval of the plan's limited scope in that it does not address withdrawal from the entire West Bank. He said that the EU "will not recognize any change to the pre-1967 borders other than those arrived at by agreement between the parties." However, Europe has given tentative backing to the Disengagement Plan as part of the road map for peace. United Nations Kofi Annan,United Nations Secretary-General, commended on August 18, 2005[95]what he called Israeli Prime Minister Sharon’s "courageous decision" to carry through with the painful process of disengagement, expressed the hope that "both Palestinians and Israelis will exercise restraint in this challenging period", and "believes that a successful disengagement should be the first step towards a resumption of the peace process, in accordance with the Road Map", referring to the plan sponsored by the diplomaticQuartet– UN, EU, Russia, and the United States – which calls for a series of parallel steps leading to two states living side-by-side in peace by the end of the year. Ibrahim Gambari,Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, told the Security Council on August 24, 2005:[96] Israel has demonstrated that it has the requisite maturity to do what would be required to achieve lasting peace, and the Israeli Defence Forces (IDF) has demonstrated their ability to discharge their mission with carefully calibrated restraint. Prime Minister Sharon should be commended for his determination and courage to carry out the disengagement in the face of forceful and strident internal opposition. Public opinion Palestinian The PA, in the absence of a final peace settlement, has welcomed any military withdrawal from the territories, but many Palestinian Arabs have objected to the plan, stating that it aims to "bypass" past international agreements, and instead call for a complete withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Their suspicions were further aroused when top Sharon aide Dov Weisglass was quoted in an interview with Israeli newspaperHaaretzon October 6, 2004, as saying that the disengagement would prevent a Palestinian state for years to come (see above). This incident has bolstered the position of critics of the plan that Sharon is intentionally trying to scuttle the peace process.[97]Israeli officials, including Weisglass, denied this accusation, and media critics have asserted that the Weisglass interview was widely distorted and taken out of context.[citation needed] On August 8, 2005,Haaretzquoted a top Palestinian Authority religious cleric, SheikhJamal al-Bawatna, themuftiof theRamallahdistrict, in afatwa(a religious edict) banning shooting attacks against Israeli security forces and settlements, out of concern they might lead to a postponement of the pullout. According toHaaretz, this is the first time that a Muslim cleric has forofferden shooting at Israeli forces.[98]On August 15, 2005, scenes of delight took place across the Arab world, following the long-ingrained suspicion that the disengagement would not take place.[99][100] Israeli opinions A September 15, 2004 survey published inMaarivshowed that: 69% supported a general referendum to decide on the plan; 26% thought that approval in the Knesset would be enough. If a referendum were to be held, 58% would vote for the disengagement plan, while 29% would vote against it.[101][102] Polls on support for the plan have consistently shown support for the plan in the 50-60% range, and opposition in the 30–40% range. A June 9, 2005,Dahaf Institute/Yedioth Ahronothpoll showed support for the plan at 53%, and opposition at 38%.[103]A June 17, telephone poll published inMaarivshowed 54% of Israel’s Jews supporting the plan. A poll carried out by the Midgam polling company, on June 29 found support at 48% and opposition at 41%,[104]but a Dahaf Institute/Yedioth Ahronot poll of the same day found support at 62% and opposition at 31%.[103]A poll conducted the week of July 17 by theTel Aviv UniversityInstitute for Media, Society, and Politicsshows that Israeli approval of the disengagement is at 48%; 43% of the respondents believe that Palestinianterrorismwill increase following disengagement, versus 25% who believe that terrorism will decline.[105] On July 25, 2004, the "Human Chain", a rally of tens of thousands of Israelis to protest against the plan and for a national referendum took place. The protestors formed ahuman chainfrom Nisanit (later moved toErez Crossingbecause of security concerns) in the Gaza Strip to theWestern WallinJerusalema distance of 90km.[106]On October 14, 2004, 100,000 Israelis marched in cities throughout Israel to protest the plan under the slogan "100 cities supportGush KatifandSamaria".[107] On May 16, 2005, a nonviolent protest was held throughout the country, with the protesters blocking major traffic arteries throughout Israel. The protest was sponsored by "HaBayit HaLeumi", and was hailed by them as a success, with over 400 protestors arrested, half of them juveniles. Over 40 intersections throughout the country were blocked, including: The entrance toJerusalem Bar Ilan/Shmuel Hanavi Junction in Jerusalem Sultan's PoolJunction outside the Old City of Jerusalem Geha Highway Golumb St. corner of Begin Blvd in Jerusalem On June 9, 2005, a poll on Israeli Channel 2 showed that public support for the plan had fallen below 50 percent for the first time. On July 18, 2005, a nonviolent protest was held. The protest began inNetivotnear Gaza. The protest march ended July 21 after police prevented protesters from continuing to Gush Katif. On August 2, 2005, another protest against disengagement began inSderot, with approximately 50,000 attendees. On August 10, 2005, in response to calls from Jewish religious leaders, including former Chief RabbisAvraham Shapira,Ovadia Yosef, andMordechai Eliyahu, between 70,000 (police estimate) and 250,000 (organizers' estimate) Jews gathered for a rally centered at theWestern Wallin prayer to ask that the planned disengagement be cancelled. The crowds that showed up for the rally overwhelmed the Western Wall's capacity and extended as far as the rest of the Old City and The prayer rally was the largest of its kind for over 15 years, since the opposition to theMadrid Conference of 1991.[citation needed][108][109][110][111]On August 11, 2005, between 150,000 (police estimates) and 300,000 (organizers' estimates) people massed in and aroundTel Aviv'sRabin Squarefor an anti-disengagement rally. Organizers called the event "the largest expression of public protest ever held in Israel."[citation needed]According to a police spokesman, it was one of the largest rallies in recent memory.[112] Those advocating suspension or cancellation of the plan have often quoted one or more of these arguments: The religious approach maintains thatEretz Israelwas promised to theJewsbyGod, and that no government has the authority to waive this inalienable right. In their view, inhabiting all of the land of Israel is one of the most importantmitzvot. The political approach, owing much to existing right-wing ideology, claims that the areas to be evacuated constitute Israeli territory as legitimately asTel AvivorHaifa, and that relocating settlers is illegal and violates their human rights. Some have gone as far as labelling it awar crime. In the wake of theSharm el-Sheikh Summit of February 2005, some have claimed that now that there is a negotiation partner on the Palestinian side, the plan has become redundant. The military approach says that the plan is disastrous to Israeli security – not only will prevention ofQassam rocketsand other attacks from Gaza become nearly impossible after the withdrawal, but implementation of the plan will be an important moral victory forHamasand other organizations, and will encourage them to continue executing terrorist attacks against Israel. Orange ribbonsin Israel symbolize opposition to the disengagement; it is the color of the flag of theGaza coast Regional Council.Blue ribbons(sometimes blue-and-white ribbons) symbolized support for the disengagement and are intended to invoke theIsraeli flag. American opinions Polls in the U.S. about the question of the Gaza pullout produced varied results. One poll commissioned by theAnti-Defamation League, and conducted by the Marttila Communications Group from June 19–23, 2005 among 2200 American adults, found that 71% of respondents felt that the Disengagement Plan is closer to a "bold step that would advance the Peace Process" than to a "capitulation to terrorist violence", while 12% felt that the plan is more of a "capitulation" than a "bold step". Another poll commissioned by theZionist Organization of America, and conducted by McLaughlin & Associates on June 26, 2005 – June 27, 2005, with a sample of 1,000 American adults, showed U.S. opposition to the proposed disengagement. Respondents, by a margin of 4 to 1 (63% to 16%) opposed "Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from a section of Gaza and northernSamariaand forcing 10,000 Israeli Jews from their homes and businesses" and by a margin of 2.5 to 1 (53% to 21%), agreed with the statement that "this Gaza Plan sends a message that Arab terrorism is being rewarded." Morton Klein, President of the Zionist Organization of America, criticized the Anti-Defamation League-commissioned poll, stating that the question in the poll was not whether or not respondents agreed with the Disengagement Plan, but was a subjective characterization of primary motives behind it: whether Israeli politicians are acting more for the sake of capitulating to terrorism or for the sake of continuing the road map. The Anti-Defamation League, in turn, criticized the ZOA-commissioned poll, calling its wording "loaded." Israeli media coverage The Israeli media systematically overstated "the threat posed by those opposed to disengagement and emphasiz[ed] extreme scenarios", according to the Israeli media monitoring NGO Keshev ("Awareness").[113][114]Keshev's report states that “ throughout the weeks before the disengagement, and during the evacuation itself, the Israeli media repeatedly warned of potential violent confrontation between settlers and security forces. These scenarios, which never materialized, took over the headlines. ” Based on Keshev's research, the Israeli print and TV media "relegated to back pages and buried deep in the newscasts, often under misleading headlines" items that "mitigat[ed] the extreme forecasts."[115]Editors delivered "one dominant, ominous message: The Police Declares High Alert Starting Tomorrow, Almost Like a State of War"Channel 1(main news headline, August 14, 2005)[116] "The discrepancy between the relatively calm reality emerging from most stories and the overall picture reflected in the headlines is evident in every aspect of the disengagement story: in the suppression of information about the voluntary collection of weapons held by the settlers in the Gaza Strip; in reporting exaggerated numbers of right-wing protesters who infiltrated the Strip before the evacuation; in misrepresentation of the purpose of settler protest (which was an exercise in public relations, not a true attempt to thwart the disengagement plan); and in playing down coordinated efforts between the Israeli security forces and the settlers."[115] The price for this misrepresentation was paid, at least in part, by the settlers, whose public image was radicalized unjustifiably. After the disengagement was completed without violence between Israelis and a sense of unity and pride pervaded society, "the media chose to give Israeli society, and especially its security forces, a pat on the back."[115] 4562



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