1940 Palestine HEBREW Litho CARD GAME Jewish RUSHKEVITZ Israel JUDAICA BOX Food For Sale
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1940 Palestine HEBREW Litho CARD GAME Jewish RUSHKEVITZ Israel JUDAICA BOX Food:
DESCRIPTION :Up for sale is one of the MOST DESIRED and SOUGHT AFTER Hebrew ISRAELIANA MUSEUM ITEM which appeared only once or twice in ISRAELIANA sales and received prices of $2500 and up. It's theEXTREMELY RAREover 80 years old Eretz Israeli Palestine QUARTET CARD GAME named "TOZERET HA'ARETZ" - "MADE IN ERETZ ISRAEL - PALESTINE" whichwas DESIGNED and PUBLISHED by perhaps the MOST CONSIDERED graphical ARTIST and ILLUSTRATOR of Childrens' books , Childrens' games , Playing CARDS etc , Whose STONE LITHOGRAPHIC prints are known to be an ARTISTICMASTER WORK in that artistic field - FRITZ ( Peretz ) RUSCHKEWITZ ( Also ROSHKOVITZ - RUSHKEVITZ -פרץ רושקביץ) . RUSHKEVITZ has created 36 LITHOGRAPHIC CARDS , Being GENUINE ISRAELI MASTERPIECES . 36 cards which areSTONE LITHOGRAPH printing, With vibrant COLORS and DESIGN . The CARD GAME was printed and published inca early-mid 1940's, Tel Aviv Eretz Israel - Palestine , A decade beforethe BIRTH of the INDEPENDENT STATE of ISRAEL and its 1948 WAR of INDEPENDENCE.The CARD GAME is dedicated to MADE IN ERETZ ISRAEL PRODUCTS. Each of the 36 CARDS , Being a small lithographic poster is being dedicated to an ICONIC KOSHER PRODUCT such as ASIS , AKA, TASAS , ULTRA-GAS, MESHI SACS, KESHET , O.B.G CLOTHING , SOVA bread, ATARA Institutes and firms such as TEL AVIV MUNICIPALITY , WIZO, MACCABBI , CIMEMA "EDEN" , NAVAL SHIPING COMPANY etc. Each of the LITHOGRAPHIC PIECES is signed in the plate by RUSHKEVITZ and carries the LOGO of TOTZERET HA'ARETZ , The three chimenies on its back. The game includes the ORIGINAL CARDBOARD BOX and the ORIGINAL INSTRUCTIONS. The condition is PRISTINE , Never played with . All 36 cards are present in MINT condition.( Pls
look at scan for accurate AS IS images ) .Will be sent in a special protective
AUTHENTICITY :This ILLUSTRATED card game PACKis fullyguaranteed
ORIGINAL , It is
NOT a reproduction or a recently made reprint or an immitation ,Itholds alife
long GUARANTEE for itsAUTHENTICITY and ORIGINALITY.
PAYMENTS : Payment method accepted : Paypal .
SHIPPING : Shipp worldwide via registeredairmail is FREE ( Only with buy it now purchase ) .ITEM will be sent in a special protective rigid sealedpackage . Handling within 3-5 days after payment. Estimated duration 14 days.
The artist Peretz Roshkovitz (1901-1967) Feretz Ruschkewitz studied art in Berlin and emigrated to Israel (then ‘Palestine’) in 1933. He lived in Tel Aviv and his artistic activity focused on illustrating and publishing books for children. However, he never quite master the Hebrew language and for his books’ texts he was assisted by known Israeli writers, most notably Leah Goldberg. His illustrations are still live and beautiful to this very day. ****הצייר פרץ רושקביץ (1901-1967)פרץ רושקביץ למד אמנות בבית-הספר הגבוה לציור בברלין, גרמניה. עלה לארץ בשנת 1933. חי ויצר בעיר תל-אביב. פעילותו האמנותית התמקדה בציורים ואיורים לספרי ילדים ובהקמת הוצאת ספרים ספריו השאירו טעם טוב בקרב ילדים ומבוגרים עד עצם היום הזה. בין הספרים שהוציא: ”אנו עליזים“, ”חברים טובים“, ”טיול בארץ“, ”נבקר בגן חיות“, ”נח ותיבתו“, ”נסיעה טובה“, ”קרקס לילדים“, ”שנים עשר צברים“ ועוד.פרץ רושקביץ היה ”ייקה“ בתל אביב, שלא שלט בשפה העברית כל ימיו ולכן נעזר בתמלילנים כמו לאה גולדברג, יחיאל מוהר, שמשון מלצר ועוד. ****TheLevant Fair(Hebrew:יריד המזרח)was an internationaltrade fairheld inTel Avivduring the 1920s and 1930s. Contents[hide] 1 History 1.1 Early Years 1.2 Later fairs 1.3 Demise 1.4 Memorials 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External links History Early Years One of the early precursors to the Levant Fair, an exhibition titled the "Exhibition and Fair for the Promotion of Goods Made in Israel", took place in April 1914 and was held at a boys' school in Tel Aviv. Another such show was held in the summer of 1923 in three rooms of theZionist ClubonRothschild Boulevard. This exhibition's success in turn paved the way for five subsequent exhibitions. The success also improved the area provided by the municipality for entrepreneurs, a desolate, southern part of Tel Aviv with an old bus station. The area is now home to theAdministration Building of the Society for the Protection of Nature. There were further exhibitions in 1925, two in 1926, 1929, and one in 1932, with the fair in 1932 being the first to be called the "Levant Fair". A special symbol called the "Flying Camel" was designed for the fair by its chief architect, Lion Elhanani. Trees were planted during the fair in honor of the former exhibition, and three such palm trees survive to this day. Henceforth, these exhibitions were referred to as fairs and also became quite successful, attracting tens of thousands and then hundreds of thousands of Jews, Arabs, English, and tourists. The 1932 fair was visited by nearly 300,000 people. Voice Jerusalem, an Israeli radio station, began regular broadcasts about the fair, in Hebrew, starting in 1936. Some very distinguished people have visited the fair, including British High Commissioners for PalestineHerbert Samuel(1920-1925),Herbert Plumer(1925-1928),John Chancellor(1928-1931), andArthur Wauchope(1932-1937), as well as Arab mayors ofJaffaandJerusalem. Later fairs As the scope of the exhibition expanded, it became necessary to construct a permanent home for the fair and others like it.High Commissioner Arthur Wauchope, who had supported theYishuv, liked the idea and helped to designate the Yarkon Peninsula, an area north of the city, for the construction of the complex. On 17 August 1933 a cornerstone ceremony was held there, which featured Wauchope,Meir Dizengoff, and other community leaders. The 1934 fair opened at the new constructed exhibition grounds at the north edge ofDizengoff Streetin Tel Aviv on 26 April 1934. The fair was opened by the High Commissioner, Arthur Wauchope. A point of celebration at the fair was a Jubilee for the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of Tel Aviv. With 600,000 people from thirty countries participating in the fair during its six weeks, the fair was also a major event for the local economy. The fair covered an area of tenhectares, including display booths of the participating countries, landscaping and gardening, new roads,Luna Park, and various sculptures. The fair was of great importance for the local architecture and design of Tel Aviv, with pavilions being built by prominent Jewish architects of the time, including Elhanani,Richard Kaufmann, andArieh Sharon. The fair's icon, envisioned byAlexander Ezerand designed by Leo Elhanani, was a winged camel, nicknamed "The Flying Camel." The plaza at the fair's entrance way was named "Palomar Square" in honor of theHigh Commissioner Herbert Plumer. The fair's masthead flying camel statuem built by architect Arieh Elhanani in 1932, was located in the plaza and near the mouth of the Yarkon Maccabiah Stadium. A broad amphitheater was also established near the entrance way. The fair also included a Lebanese Pavilion which, according to the thenLebanese President, intended to foster the traditional friendship between the two neighbors. The pavilion was a relief of ancientBaalbek, which can still be seen in Tel Aviv today. The central pavilion of the fair was made in Israel and designed by architectRichard Kauffmannin the shape of a ship. A sculpture called "The Hebrew Verb", built by Leo Elhanani, stands on the site today. Other statues built for the fair include "Rejected Lot's Wife", "Sower Statue", "Statue of Deer", and "Statue of the Woman". The fair also put great emphasis on design elements, such as the flagpoles which filled the fair's roads. Foreign design elements were also included, such as lampposts which were headed by a round plate and placed under incandescent bulbs. Another fair was held in 1936, but because of theriotsthat began two weeks prior to the opening and shut down theport of Jaffa, it was a small fair, far smaller in scope than its predecessor. Many events were cancelled and many exhibitors cancelled their participation in the exhibition. This fair also caused financial losses for the company that organized it. Demise After 1936, and for the duration of theSecond World War, the Levant Fair ceased operation and fairgrounds were converted into an alternative fairgrounds complex. When theTel Aviv Portwas built near the site in 1936, the port was used to store a temporary Levant Fair,and thus the street leading to the harbor is named "Zion Gate". In December 1936, the fairgrounds were the location of one of the first concerts of theIsrael Philharmonic Orchestra, under the baton ofArturo Toscanini. During World War II, the fairgrounds were taken over by theBritish Armyand used for their military training. During theWar of Independence, the fairground structures were used for storage of theIDF. AfterIsraeli independence, the fairgrounds were abandoned and became the site for various workshops and garages. Some of the original buildings were destroyed and others crumbled. The sculptures and works of art from the fair have mostly disappeared fairgrounds, except for the Hebrew Worker statue, which has been restored. Plumer Square is now a parking lot. In 1959, a new exhibition grounds opened inSderot Rokach, beyond theYarkon River. The grounds were opened by then MayorHaim Lebanon, along with "Exhibition 50 years of Tel Aviv" and a design plan for a "Fair Middle" by architect Arieh Elhanani. In recent years there has been a rehabilitation effort on the old fairgrounds, and there have been plans to turn it into a shopping and entertainment area. Urban development of the peninsula at the mouth of theYarkonled to further development of the city of Tel Aviv. Some development continued north, beyond the Yarkon River, including the establishment of theTel Aviv Port, in 1936; the Sde Dov Airport, also in 1936; and theReading Power Station, in 1938. In 1938 the "Maccabiah Stadium" was also built nearby, and the Philharmonic Orchestra Hall was built within the area of the former fairgrounds. Memorials There are two memorials stationed at the entrance to the former fairgrounds. One commemorates the 27 December 1945Irgunattack on the local British military camp, in which forces confiscated British weapons and ammunition. It remembers Irgun fighter Dov Strnglz, who was killed in battle. "City of Work and Prosperity": The Levant Fair Tel Aviv derived its economic dynamism from its proximity to the agricultural hinterland of Jaffa (famous for its oranges) and from the ties that Jewish immigrants maintained with their (primarily) European countries of origin. This one-time suburb quickly grew into a formidable commercial rival to Jaffa. Constant frictions between Arabs and Jews in the two cities led to the opening of the Tel Aviv port in 1936 at the initiative of its mayor, Meir Dizengoff. While Tel Aviv was not a center of heavy industry, a sizable number of textile and clothing manufacturers maintained their premises there – the best known of which was the Lodzia textile firm (named after the city of Lodz, the "Polish Manchester"). Electrical power was needed to keep Tel Aviv’s economy humming, and this was provided by the Palestine Electric Company, Ltd., directed by Pinhas Rutenberg (1879-1942). Starting in 1924, commercial fairs were regularly held in Tel Aviv to showcase the industrial and commercial activity of the JewishYishuvin Palestine. The first one to be called a “Levant Fair” (Yerid ha-mizrah) took place in 1932, and two more Levant Fairs were held in 1934 and 1936, when their activities were curtailed by the Palestinian revolt (1936-1939). Levant fair 7/4/1932 The first Levant Fair opened in Tel Aviv – an internationalfair with the participation of exhibitors from 24 different countries. This fair was preceded by a series of exhibitions and fairs in Tel Aviv, which had been held since 1923. The fair in 1932 was the first to be called "The Levant Fair” and a special symbol was designed for it – “The Flying Camel” by Arieh El-Hanani. The symbol represented the connection between East and West. The fair was a big success, and the British Government decided to move the fair to a fixed domain in the Yarkon peninsula area, north of the city. The grand opening of the new complex occurred in 1934 in the presence of the High Commissioner, Arthur Wauchope, and the mayor, Meir Dizengoff. The subsequent fairs were a great success, but then encountered difficulties due to the Arab Revolt in 1936-1939. In the years of the Second World War that came afterwards, the fairs were not held. In 1959 they were once again held, this timeat Ganei Ha'Ta'arucha. The photographs, handbills, maps and documents that are kept in the Central Zionist Archives present this most important commercial activity in the 30's in Palestine.**** PALESTINE PRODUCTS : DubekLtd. is Israel's leading and longest-established cigarette manufacturer. The company produces, markets and distributes cigarettes, cigars, lighters and smoking accessories. Dubek is Israel's sole manufacturer of cigarettes and its brands include Time, Noblesse and Golf. Dubek was established in 1935 by Martin Gehl, a German emigrant with a Zionist vision of establishing a manufacturing base in Israel. In 1960, Dubek became one of the first companies to be publicly traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Throughout the years, Martin Gehl together with his son Zorach, expanded the business and took over all other cigarette manufacturers in Israel. Leaving Dubek as the only company in the field. In 2003 Dubek became a private company. Today the company is headed by Dr. Roy Gehl, Martin Gehl's grandson and its main offices are situated in Martin Gehl Street named after its founder. is an Israeli cigarette brand produced by Dubek, Israel's oldest cigarette manufacturer. The brand, launched in 1952 in a distinct green, 80mm, 'soft-pack' which has never been dramatically changed, is the oldest in Dubek's product line. The cigarette also has the highest tar (19mg) and nicotine (1.3mg) amounts available on the Israeli mass-market. Dubek has since released two different versions under the same Noblesse brand; a lower nicotine/tar blend in light-green packaging (Noblesse Blend - it is illegal to use the term 'lite' on cigarettes in Israe, and an even lower nicotine/tar blend in blue packaging (Noblesse American Blue). Noblesse cigarettes are also distributed or sold by the Israel Defense Forces to soldiers in Israeli military prisons.Company name:Dubek Ltd.Year of Establishment: 1935 Nature of activity:The company is the only cigarette manufacturer in Israel, manufacturing, marketing and distributing various cigarette, cigar, lighter and smoking accessory brands in Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Gaza Strip and the West Bank. In addition, the Company also imports its brands to a number of countries overseas. Brands: As the only cigarette manufacturer in Israel, Dubek has assumed the mission of developing, manufacturing and marketing an extensive variety of cigarette bran suitable for the Israeli audience in terms of various blend flavors and strengths. Company brands include Time, Noblesse, no. 9, Mustang, Europe, Nelson, Sheraton, Montana and Broadway. In addition to the brands manufactured in the Company's factory, the Company exclusively import brand manufactured by the Danish company House of Prince: Wall Street, Rockets and Slim Agenda. Dubek employs maximal efforts to provide its clients a large variety of high-quality products, while maintaining constant innovation and offering a solution to the entire Israeli population, for all its sectors. The Company's brands enjoy an international reputation of excellence and have won many gold medals for quality in the prestigious international competition "Monde Selection".Dubek, is a leading manufacturer of cigarettes and tobacco products, one of the first companies in Israeli industry.In 193the Company was established by a group of Industrialists, including a mechanical engineer who specialized in equipment for the tobacco industry – Mr. Martin Gehl. Since its establishment, the Company has been persistent in manufacturing high quality cigarette products. In 1960the Company became one of the first public companies traded on the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. In 1965 Dubek introduced its flag cigarette brand: "Time" – which has become the favorite and most sold cigarette brand in Israel over the years. In 1971Dubek purchased two competing tobacco companies and became the only cigarette manufacturer in Israel! Headed by Mr. Zorach U. Gehl, fourth generation of cigarette manufacturers, Dubek became a modern and efficient factory in the Israeli industry. In 1985 Dubek was ranked 11 on the Dun & Bradstreet list of "The 100 leading companies in Israeli Entrepreneurship" In 2003Dubek became a private company. In 2004 Dubek received exclusive representation rights from the Danish "House of Prince" Company for its cigarette and tobacco products and began distributing its brands. Euromonitor International'sTobacco in Israelmarket report offers a comprehensive guide to the size and shape of the market at a national level. It provides the latest retail sales data, allowing you to identify the sectors driving growth. It identifies the leading companies, the leading brands and offers strategic analysis of key factors influencing the market - be they new product developments, packaging innovations, economic/lifestyle influences, distribution or pricing issues. Forecasts illustrate how the market is set to change. Buy online to access strategic market analysis and an interactive statistical database of duty paid retail volume and value sales, illicit trade volume, company and brand shares, pricing, distribution and production data.Carmel Wineryis a vineyard and winery in Israe. Founded in 1882 by Edmond James de Rothschild, its products are exported to over 40 countriesOverviewCarmel Winery manufactures mainly wine, brandy and grape juice. It is the prime producer of wine in Israel, as it produces nearly half of the Israeli wine market, and one of the largest wine producers in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is the first and oldest exporter of wine, brandy and grape juice in the country, and also the largest producer of kosher wine in the world. The company is owned by the council of the Vine-growers Union (75%) and the Jewish Agency for Israel (25%). Its parent company is Societe Cooperative Vigneronne des Grandes Caves Richon Le Zion & Zikhron Ya'akov Ltd. (S.C.V.) The company holds the two largest wineries in Israel, as well as three new boutique wineries. These wineries include Rishon LeZion Winery, Zikhron Ya'akov Winery, Yatir Winery (50%) and Ramat Dalton Winery. In addition, the company owns 1,500 hectares (3,750 acres) of vineyards in Israel. Carmel's production reaches 25-30 million bottles per year and its profit from export adds up to USD 5 million from 40 countries.HistoryWhen the settlers of the First Aliyah, Jews who immigrated to Palestine from Eastern Europe in the second half of the 19th century, encountered difficulties in cultivating the land due to their lack of experience and the soil's characteristics, they began to seek support outside of Palestine for establishing vineyards and wineries. Their representatives traveled to France, where they met Baron Edmond de Rothschild, owner of Château Lafite. As a Zionist, Rothschild provided financial and moral assistance to the settlers. His first vineyards were planted near Rishon LeZion, south east of Jaffa. In 1882, French rootstock was imported, and the Baron sent his own wine specialists to advise the pioneers in this enterprise. Construction began on a large wine cellar in Rishon LeZion. Later, a second winery was established in Zikhron Ya'akov, situated on Mount Carme just south of Haifa. In 1895 Carmel Wine Co. was formed to export wines of Rishon LeZion and Zikhron Ya'akov, first in Poland, then in Austria, Great Britain and the United States. In 1902 Carmel Mizrahi was founded in Palestine to market and distribute wines to the cities of the Ottoman Empire. In 1896, the first Carmel wines were presented at the International Exhibition of Berlin at a special pavilion devoted to the industries of the Jewish colony in Palestine. Over a hundred thousand people visited the exhibition, looked at the products, and drank a glass of Rishon LeZion wine. A year later, a world gardening exhibition was held in Hamburg where the settlers' wines were well received. Rishon LeZion wines won a gold medal at the Paris World's Fair in 1900. In 1906, both the vineyards and the management of the two wineries were deeded to the winegrowers, forming the "Societé Cooperative Vigneronne des Grandes Caves, Richon le Zion and Zikhron Jacob Ltd." Interestingly, many of Israel's historical figures worked in the vineyards and in the wineries. Perhaps the two most famous were the first Prime Minister of Israel, David Ben Gurion and his successor, Levi Eshkol Through the early decades of the 20th century the wine business bloomed. Branches of Carmel Wine Co., were opened in Damascus, Cairo, Beirut, Berlin, London, Warsaw and Alexandria and sales increased, particularly during the First World War, when allied troops passed through Palestine. However, the businesses fell sharply when the war was over. The industry lost its principal markets in Russia due to the October Revolution, in the United States because of Prohibition, and in Egypt and the Middle East because of Arab nationalism. Many of the vineyards were uprooted and replanted with citrus trees. However, during the Second World War, the industry began to grow again and with successive waves of immigrants, drinking habits gradually changed. In 1957, the estate of the Baron Edmond de-Rothschild deeded over the two wineries to the Cooperative of Winegrowers, the Societé Cooperative Vigneronne des Grandes Caves, by then, better known under the trade name Carmel Mizrahi in Israel and Carmel worldwide. For some years after the end of the war, Carmel's output was focused on sweet wines used for sacramental purposes. However, with the emergence of the new world in wine making, Israeli wine makers sought new varieties of grapes, thus in 1971 Cabarnet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc, the first varietal wines from Israel, were presented in the United States market. In the early 80's, the wine industry in Israel fell upon hard times, but in the second half of the decade, wine became more popular and demands for quality stimulated tremendous improvements in the varieties of grapes being grown, the cultivation of new growing regions and the updating of fermentation and production techniques. Over the past few years, new state of the art wineries have been built, the existing wineries have been renovated and a new team of young, highly qualified wine makers have been employed. The constant search for improvement is now part of the fabric of the cooperative. In 2003 Carmel agreed to sponsor 'Carmel Trophy for Best Eastern Mediterranean Producer' at I.W.S.C. in London. In 2004 Peter Stern (formerly at Mondavi & Gallo) from California was appointed wine making consultant. The same year Carmel founded 'Handcrafted Wines of Israel'. Exporting to over 40 countries, Carmel products are found in wine stores and retail chains around the globe.WineriesCarmel's first winery and head office is Rishon LeZion Winery, which is located in the city of Rishon LeZion. It was built in 1890 by Baron Edmond de Rothschild, making it the oldest industrial building in Israel still in use. The winery is the largest winery in Israel in terms of production of wines, spirits and grape juice. It was the first establishment in Israel to install electricity and telephone, and David Ben Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, worked there. It underwent renovations in the 1990s. Carmel's second winery is Zikhron Ya'akov Winery. Located in Zikhron Ya'akov, it is used for production of wine and blending of olive oil. It was built in 1892, also by Baron Edmond de Rothschild. The winery is the largest winery in Israel in terms of grapes received at harvest. It includes a new boutique winery built in 2003 and a pilot micro-winery for research and development. Yatir Winery is a small winery built in 2000 with state of the art equipment, which receives grapes only from its own vineyards. It is situated in Tel Arad, an archaeological site with 3,000 years of history, in the northeastern Negev. The winery was a joint venture between Carmel (50%) and Gadash local wine growers (50%). Yatir Winery is now solely owned by Carmel Winery. Its vineyards are located in Yatir Forest in the southern Judean Hills. Another newly built winery is Ramat Dalton, located in Ramat Dalton, Upper Galilee. It was built in 2004 and receives its grapes from vineyards in Upper Galilee and Golan Heights.VineyardsCarmel Winery owns numerous vineyards across Israel, from the Galilee and the Golan Heights in the North to the Negev in the South. These vineyards include some of the finest individual vineyard sites in the country. On average, Carmel harvests about 25,000 tonnes of grapes, which is approximately 50% of Israel’s total harvest. Exported wines will show the growing region on the label. In the Galilee and Golan, which are generally accepted as Israel’s finest wine growing areas due to their higher altitude and cooler climate, Carmel's vineyards focus on growing quality grapes. Carmel has vineyards in the central and northern Golan and it is the leading winery presence in the premium Upper Galilee. The grapes from the finest vineyards go to Ramat Dalton Winery. The coastal regions of Sharon and Central Coastal Plain are Israel’s traditional grape growing areas, where Carmel's vines were originally planted. In the northern Sharon Plain, Israel's largest wine growing region, benefiting from Mount Carmel Range and from breezes off the Mediterranean Sea, Carmel owns extensive areas of vineyards. The main concentration of vineyards is in the valleys surrounding the winery towns of Zikhron Ya’akov and Binyamina. This is the largest region for Carmel which surrounds the Zikhron Ya’akov Winery. It was announced in early 2008 that a 150-acre (0.61km) wine park would be created on the slopes between Zikhron Ya'akov and Binyamina in order to promote tourism in the area and wine tourism in Israel in general.The Central Coastal Plain (known as Dan) and the rolling hills of the Judean Lowlands make up the second coastal region, in which grapes have been traditionally grown. This is the second largest area for growing vines in Israel, as it has a coastal Mediterranean climate: hot, humid summers and warm, mild winters. It is a large region for Carmel and it supplies the Rishon LeZion Winery. In the Judean Hills, an area proved to yield grapes of high quality due to its warm days and cool nighttime temperature, Carmel has premium vineyards in Yatir Forest, the largest forest in Israel. These vineyards, which are up to 900 meters above sea level, supply grapes for the boutique Yatir Winery. Carmel is a pioneer in the Negev, a popular area for vine growing in ancient times, with its high quality Ramat Arad vineyard situated on the north east Negev plateau, 500 meters above sea level with very hot days and cold nights.Tnuva, or Tenuvah, is a cooperative (co-op) in Israel specializing in milk and dairy products. The 620 members of the cooperative are made up a large number of kibbutzim (or collective farms) and moshavim (or agricultural communities) in Israel. Tnuva is the largest dairy products manufacturer in Israel; its sales account for 70% of the country's dairy market as well as sales of meat, eggs and packaged food. Tnuva Central Cooperative for the Marketing of Agricultural Produce in Israel Ltd. was created in 1926, following a decision by kibbutz-movement leaders to make cooperatives to distribute and export several types of food products. Tnuva was created as a result but at first only delivered regular milk for drinking. It expanded to cover other dairy products in the 1930s. Tnuva was labeled by the Israel AntiTru Authority as a monopoly a status that essentially places the company under government regulation limiting the way it can change the price of its products to protect the consumer and smaller competitors. In 2006, it was reported that the Markstone Capital Partners Fund was interested in purchasing Tnuva and its assets for about $750 million. The general manager, Arik Reichman, values the company between $800 million to $1 billion. Another obstacle to selling the company or even a large minority share was the need to convert the cooperative to a company requiring a majority of the members approval. In November 20, 2006 Apax Partners Worldwide LLP, a London-based buyout firm, won a tender to buy control of Tnuva. The offer values the privately held food and dairy group at $1.025 billion, larger than Strauss-Elite Ltd. and Osem Investments Ltd. the two largest publicly held Israeli food companies.The Tnuva StoryFor nearly 80 years, Tnuva has provided consumers in the Holy Land with a wide variety of premium dairy and cheese products that are made with the freshest ingredients. Today, Tnuva is a billion dollar food conglomerate that is playing an integral role in the global food economy by offering a wide variety of quality products to millions of consumers in the Middle East, Europe and the USA. Tnuva's Mediterranean-style cheese and dairy products are produced in cutting-edge dairy production facilities located amidst pastoral Galilean hills and valleys. Tnuva's popular line of cheeses known asEmek, is derived from the Hebrew word for 'valley.The distinctive blue, red, green and white company logo has become a magnet for consumers in Israel and the USA who demand quality and quantity. In order to cultivate the changing dietary demands of sophisticated consumers on both sides of the ocean, Tnuva prides itself on producing a large number of innovative low-calorie and low-fat products that taste great and are easy on the waist. Tnuva relishes the challenge of offering consumers a unique shopping experience, as well as providingunique culinary tips to amateur and professional chefs. Tnuva Food Industries supplies the milk in the land of milk and honey, and, as one of Israel's largest food companies, it has no trouble keeping its dairy and meat divisions separate. Tnuva's dairy division supplies fluid and cultured milk products, butter, soy-based drinks, and cheeses throughout Israel. It markets the Yoplait brand in that country as well. The company's other food divisions are major processors and suppliers of chicken, eggs, fish, meats, frozen pizza, and deli items. Tnuva's subsidiary, Sunfrost, makes frozen vegetables. London-based investment firm, Apax Partners, owns 55% of the company; Israeli investment firm, Mivtach Shamir Holdings, owns 20About Shemen Industries Ltd The IdeaThe idea of innovating and founding an industry in Israel was first raised in the beginning of the previous century by a group of Hovevei Zion from Minsk, Russia. In 1903, Nahum Wilboshvitz (later known as Wilbosh), who headed the group, came to Israel in order to check the possibilities of industrial development in the country: searching for energy sources, examining ways of improving and developing the traditional industries, mainly of oil and soap. Wilbosh proposed to establish a company, which will engage in secondary production of olive oil made of rape once the oil is extracted. At the time, the process was performed using wood-pressers. Wilbosh suggested using chemical resources such as gasoline.The FoundationOn a crowded land with olive plantations and oil-pressers that sell rape, a place was found. 100 dunam were bought from the land of Haditha village (located north-east of Lod). Wilbosh traveled to Europe in the purpose of learning the process of chemical extraction and ordering the required equipment. "Hadid" factory, later known as "Ben-Shemen", was established in 1905 with the financial assistance of Jews from Tzritzin who accepted Wilbosh's enterprise. The factory began working by the end of January 1906, when all the equipment arrived. The first season was not particularly blessed – out of 260 tons of rape, only 10% of oil was produced, and by the end of the season, the amount of oil reduced to merely 5-6%. The factory was used by Petach-Tikva and Rehovot's farmers."Atid" FactoryIn 1906 Wilbosh married Shoshana Fineberg. Along with Shmuel and Eliyahu Berlin, he founded "Atid" company: a factory for oil and soapwort (i.e. extracting rape oil and soap). "Achad ha'Am" named the factory and "Hadid" factory joined the company. After purchasing a property on the seashore in Haifa, the factory was built from hewn stone (later it became a museum of oil industry). Nahum Arman managed the soapery, and the number of "Atid" workers amounted to 100 families within two years. Once the iron-pressers started working in the traditional industry, the percentage of rape oil decreased meaningfully, and thus, rape oil gradually became less profitable. Due to economic difficulties, the factory was shut down in 1910 and the factories were leased. Nahum Arman continued with a limited soap manufacturing until 1922.Establishing "Shemen"Despite the difficulties, Nahum Wilbosh did not give up, and in 1919 he founded "Shemen" company in London together with his brothers Moshe and Gedaliah Wilboshvitz and Eliyahu Panison. Since they needed a duty free port in order to export, they planned on building one near Caesarea. Houses were leased and schemes were written, but the British government objected, in spite of Zeev Jabotinsky's lobbyism. In 1922 Nahum and Gedaliah Wilboshvitz began establishing "Shemen" factory near "Atid" factory and started assembling the machines. In the new factory, advanced methods of manufacturing and machinery were integrated – hydraulic pressers and diesel engines as well as a modern refinery and soapery. The factory's engines were inaugurated in December 1924 by the British High Commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel. "Shemen" factory put much effort in prompting and marketing the consumption of Israeli products, and was among the first factories which took a major part in building the country.The Modern Oil IndustryAt later times it was found that extracting oil from olives rape damages the oil quality, and therefore, this method of oil production was stopped at the late 70's. The oil industry moved to producing oils from grains of different plants such as: soybean, safflower, sunflower and corn whereas the olive oil industry returned only to a mechanical method of manufacturing by olive crushing, extracting the mash and separating the oil juice from the oil. Today "Atid" factory is located on the grounds of the "Shemen" factory in Haifa, and it has a museum which displays the oil industry in Israel, since ancient times to the beginning of manufacture until nowadays The Jaffa orange, also known as the Shamouti orange, is a very sweet, almost seedless orange exported from Israel. It takes its name from the city of Jaffa.CharacteristicsJaffa oranges are very similar to Valencia oranges, though they are much sweeter. They are characterized by their oval shape, sweet flavor, and strong aroma. The peel is light orange in color, and is normally very easy to remove from the fruit. These oranges are very cold-tolerant, allowing them to grow outside of the subtropical regions normally associated with growing oranges. Jaffa oranges ripen in the spring-to-summer months, making it a midseason fruit. Jaffa oranges are susceptible to Alternaria, a type of fungus, and are prone to alternate bearing.HistoryAccording to Daniel Rogov, the variety "originated in China and Cochinchina". . 4657